WORLD CIVILIZATIONS 10
Question1. American, European and Asian
Thehistorical artifacts of the ancient American, European and Asiansocieties were similar in relation to their purpose and rationale fortheir use. First, they were all used to represent certain ideals andbeliefs of the society. In addition, the artifacts all the threeregions had hidden meanings in their use either social, economic orcultural meanings (Duiker & Spielvogel,2012).They were used to represent certain religious and cultural meaningsthat were unique to different social groups. Secondly, in America,Europe and Asia, artifacts influenced the culture of the society anddirected the beliefs of the people who valued their existence.
Interms of the use of the artifacts, Americans, Europeans and Asiansused them to reflect their diversities in economic, political,social, religious and cultural aspects of life. For instance, theTucson artifacts demonstrated the social aspects of the Mediterraneancivilization. Economic artifacts like the Neolithic iron axe showsthe economic activities of farming of the people in the ancientEurope. In the social arena, the artifact of a shoe found in Armeniaaged 5,500 years old indicated the fashion the ancient Americans had(Duiker & Spielvogel,2012).Moreover, the economic practice of hunting in ancient Europe isindicated by a 14000 year old map that was found in Spain, was usedby the ancient hunters.
Theseartifacts show how similar the ancient people in the three societiesled their lives in terms of social, political and economicperspectives. For instance, the three societies were led by ancientrulers with centralized power. Economically, they all engaged infarming and hunting due to their use of similar tools (Duiker &Spielvogel,2012).Socially, they had the family as the main unit of socialization inthe society. Moreover, they all believed in a supernatural power thatshaped their social and cultural institutions.
Question2. Fictional Imperial Roman Soldier
Asa marchant trading with the Romans, I am expected to wake up early inthe morning, inspect my goods for trade and prepare to leave. As Ileave, I will need protection of local worriors, they will lead meuntil I reach the trading location. As courageous men, theyconsidered a strong and respected more than other men in the village,which makes me feel proud to come from the region of Velletri. Inthis region, we women are treated honorably, the men value us sincewe make our society richer and larger by giving them new borns. Forthe men, they also trade, but their main role is to protect us. Toprotect us, they give their loyalty to the king, the man who isnearly second from god in Velletri. Talking about god, my neighborhad promised to come and cover my goods with totems that will protectthem and attract more buyers.
Tradingin the market is the most important thing in my life since it givesour family income and allows us to exchange what we do not need. Thisis a powerful activity in the region that my men are commited toguard us to travel at night. In addition, the rulers of the presentkingdom allow us to trade so that they can get more taxes and incomefor the king, now king Agustunus. We must provide the big traderswith our goods and any loot that our soldier men bring from all thevillages they conquer as a way of supporting bringing wealth homefrom our enemies.
Itake protection of other men to the market because my husband iscurrently in war, fighting unknown enemies. For the territories thatwill be friendly, they will take them over and teach them our cultureand make the Romans to do what we do. This was what we are alwaysreminded by an old religious leader in town whose job is to justifythe conquest actions of our husbands and sons. After volunteering as a soldier, our sons and husbands become a legion that is focused withonly one mission, to conquer. As a wife, I pray for their victory andthat is what runs in my mind since I anticipate the returning home ofmy husband.
Question3. Islamic Civilization
TheIslamic Civilization developed for centuries as the religion becameboth a source of new learning to a threat to the Latin west and Greekeast. The Islamic Civilization became centered into the Islamicreligion as it covered the Islamic regions as a brilliantcivilization of the time. The religion became the main driver of theIslamic Civilization since it incorporated the elements of othercultures into the Islamic culture. For instance, as Islamic cultureexpanded, it integrated some elements of pages, Jewish and Christianpractices into its culture. The religion kept the IslamicCivilization compact and protected the cultural practices that wereassociated with the society. This is because the religion was strictto guard the purity of Islamic culture from the influence of otherreligions.
Itwas clear that Muhammad was the unifying factor for the Islamicreligion, and therefore the entire Islamic Civilization. Hisreligious teachings made the religion stronger in its quest toprotect their beliefs and conquer more territory (Duiker &Spielvogel,2012).His teachings, therefore led to war and conquest that led toexpansion all over the world. In the civilization, the influence ofMuhammad created a civilization that developed by giving Islams hope,especially when they fought against other cultures.
Politicalinstitutions were based on the beliefs and the law of the Islamreligion. This is because the religion dictated how the followersshould work, live and associate. In addition, the Islamic religioninfluenced the economic institutions of the Islamic Civilization bydirecting trade as well as economic activities like farming (Duiker &Spielvogel,2012).As the Islamic Civilization grew, the economic, political and socialinstitutions were strengthened by the spread of the Islamic religion.
Question4. Fictional Farmer
Myhusband and I are peasant farmers living in the rural town of Lonavlaand have three children. My husband and I have a happy family, but wehave different affections to them. I treat my daughters with a lot ofcare because my husband prefers the son more than the daughters, justlike many men do here in Lonavla. In the rural village in Lonavla,farmers are the most valued people compared to fishermen in Bhushi,village potterers and cottage tool makers. My husband and I feel thatfarming is good in the region but the harvest is not good enough thisseason.
Aftera week long hard work in the field with my husband, I woke up todaymorning with a bad feeling in my head. It is a rare kind of headachethat invoked my fear that it is a result of angry gods. The localreligious leader advices regular sacrifices after every harvest,which I have not done. Therefore, I am leaving to the local artisanto create a shape of our god so that I can honor the gods, pleasethem for my healing. This is because our Hindu religion is beingemphasized by the Hindu leaders to keep Indians away from theincreasing influence of Islam in our communities. Therefore, we areconstantly being emphasized to keep a close relationship with ourgods by offering sacrifices and consulting the Hindu leaders.
Onmy way to the artisan, I meet with the Hindu religious leader whoinforms me that I also have to offer more offering to him, since Ifailed to offer to the gods in time. To my surprise, the artisan andthe instructions of the Hindu elder becomes important to my healing,which I agree to follow. A traditional Rajasthani garment that fitsme as a wife attracts my eye on my journey home. But I cannot buybecause am not supposed to carry the front together with the goldstatue in my hand.
Theuse of the spiritual remedy needed some herbs that I took from alocal medicine man, who reminded me the consequences of ignoring thegods. As I healed, I am concerned that the reducing harvest in farmsmay be because the gods are unhappy with our worship or the islamforeigners. It is until the next day that my husband reminded me ofthe responsibility that our family had not done to keep away evils.Therefore, we found and planted the sacred Tulsi plant at our houseas a way of keeping misfortunes away, and live a happy life.
Question5. Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Societies
Japanese,Korean and Vietnamese had similar economic activities that cut acrossthe south east Asian. Some members of all of these societiespracticed farming in some parts of south east Asia as a way ofproviding food. In addition, among the similarities in the Japanese,Vietnamese and Korean societies were similar social and politicalinstitutions (Duiker & Spielvogel,2012).They were all led by kings and rulers that had absolute powers togovern their subjects. The three societies also had similar religiousbeliefs and took similar religious beliefs like believing in theexistence of a god. Moreover, these societies had similar artifactsthat reflected in their social, political and economic activities.
Therewere differences among the three societies as compared to each other.Despite all having a belief in the existence of a supernatural god,Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese had different religious practices.Of all these three societies, the Japanese had the greatest sense ofcultural superiority as portrayed by their rivalry with the Chinese.
Japanese,Koreans, and Vietnamese shared a sense of superiority in theirculture despite being smaller societies in the south east Asia. Thisis because each of these societies considered their culture to be thebest and unique (Duiker & Spielvogel,2012).This is why they tried to protect their culture from any externalinfluence. This explains the reason for their commitment to their owncultures as opposed to assimilation of other cultures.
Question6. Byzantine Empire
Byzantinescities were guarded by strong, well organized armies. The city ofConstantinople, the capital City of Byzantium Empire had three strongwalls built around it. At the cities of Damascus and Homs, Byzantinesarmy applied the technique of a counteroffensive to fight the Muslimtroops, but this was defeated thus Muslims took control of Palestineand Syria. Continued defeats resulted into Byzantines taking controland guarding their major cities from Muslim invasion andrelinquishing the rural areas (Duiker & Spielvogel,2012).Emperor Constans re-organize the Byzantines army to reduce theadvances of the Muslim army. They fought Muslim invasion throughmilitary interventions and waylaying the Muslim troops on their wayback from attacks.
Inoclasmrepresented that period when the use of sacred images, pictures orstatues were being opposed by the Empire and religious leaders.Emperor Leo III initiated the destroying of these images. This ideabrought mixed reactions amongst people and leaders (Duiker &Spielvogel,2012).The western part of the empire supported the use of icons while theeastern part was against it. This leads to the splitting of theempire into two. This religious conflict brought about cultural,political and social implications. Eastern leaders supported the ruleof the Muslims that prohibited the use of the icons. This broughtanimosity among the empire leaders remembering that they werefighting a common enemy the Muslims.
Thecrusaders helped prolong the existence of the Byzantine Empire. Theirpresence helped destabilize the Muslims and slowed their invasion andalso checked the advance of the Turks towards the city ofConstantinople (Duiker & Spielvogel,2012).They help solve internal wars, Byzantines learnt to fight techniquesfrom the east, Byzantines forged strong armies and prevented thesearmies from being converted into chivalric forms of the Muslims.Trade was enhanced between the east and the Europe and differenteducation forms were modeled between the two.
BlackDeath was a fast spreading plague epidemic that killed thousands ofpeople in the the Eastern Byzantine Empire. Due to the massive lossof people, the empire lost economically in terms of reduced taxincome and food production. Byzantine Empire thrived from the taxespaid by the masses and reduction of people inflicted financialconstraints to the Empire (Duiker & Spielvogel,2012).Loss of farmers reduced food supplies and drought was experienced inthe years 540s. consequently, the Empire lost its army as evidencedby defeats by the Persians during their wars.
Question7. 1560 to 1650 European Crisis
Thecrisis that marked the period between 1560 and 1650 in Europe wascharacterized by religious crisis as well as religiously inspiredfights. One of the chaos was the religious crisis involving the romancatholic church that faced turmoil in the relationship between theirleaders and believers. The catholic faith, particularly facedproblems in the beliefs with several allegations against the leaders.They were accused of using the church for personal, political andsocial interests and were not interested in promoting the religion.
Anothercrisis tat marked the European history between 1560 and 1650 wassocial disintegration due to witchcraft craze. The population wasguided by the evil acts of witchcraft that created a social breakdowndue to the strive to live beyond the attacks (Duiker &Spielvogel,2012).On the economic front, Spain sparked another crisis that led to aneconomic crisis of inflation. The Spanish empire introduced tons ofgold to Europe, a move that led to a reduction of the value of goldin Europe. The European economy was not ready for such levels ofeconomic shock which led to inflation.
Themeasures taken by Europe to correct such crisis were not as effectiveas they were supposed to be. This is because the social and economicinstitutions were not strong to hold immediate reforms. For instance,the catholic church took longer to implement the measures that wererecommended by their congregation. This shows how ineffective themeasures by Europe were in correcting the historical crisis.
Duiker,W., & Spielvogel,J. (2012). WorldHistory. 7thEdition.Stamford,CT: Cengage