Concordat of Worms
This was a peacetreaty signed in 1122 between the Roman emperor Henry V and thepapacy represented by the Pope Calixtus II. The treaty was signednear the city of Worms in Italy hence the name. The treaty ended theconflict between the two centers of power.
This is a groupof radical Catholics from the 13th -15thcentury who practiced the act of whipping themselves as a form ofreligious expression or self-atonement. The practice was common inparts of Greece and larger Europe. However, there is a growing groupof modern flagellants witnessed in some parts of Italy andPhilippines especially around the time of Easter.
This is aphilosophical and ethical concept that calls for decent behaviortowards fellow human beings without recognition or reward. Thisconcept of being kind of practicing decency is believed to be thenatural state of humans.
4) The greatschism of 1054
This was anepisode in the history of the Church that saw the separation of theeastern orthodox and western churches later known as Roman Catholic.For this reason, it is also classed the east-west schism todifferentiate it from the other schism.
5) Thegreat schism of 1378
This was a periodin the history of the Roman Catholic Church starting from 1378 to1418 occasioned by a split for political reasons. During this time,there were two claims to the papacy.
6) The Warof the Roses
This was a seriesof wars fought in England between houses of Lancaster and Yorklasting 1455 to 1487. This issue of contention was the throne withvarious parties seeking to overthrow the incompetent Henry VI. Thetwo opposing sides were descendants and families of Henry VI(Lancaster) and the descendants of Edward IV (House of York).
7) The Council ofTrent
This was an eventin the Catholic Church that involved a series of meetings on CounterReformation. Pope Paul Ill was the first pope to call for thecouncil meeting in 1534 before it was disbanded in 1563 before itreappeared again twice several years later.
8) Thepeace of Augsburg
This was a treatysigned between Charles V and Schmalkaldic league that created theLutheran and German Catholic churches. The treaty, which was signedin the city of Augsburg in 1555 hence named after it, was interruptedby a provisional ruling by Charles V before the provision was thrownout to make the two churches last.
9) Thepeace of Westphalia
This was a seriesof treaties signed to end the Thirty Years that saw Spain recognizethe independence of Holland. The treaties were signed by the RomanEmperor Ferdinand III, France, Spain, Sweden, Holland and sovereignsof various cities. The two main treaties that formed the peace ofWestphalia were the treaty of Osnabrück and treaty of Münster.
10) TheDefenestration of Prague
This was an eventin the history of the Roman Catholic Church that preceded the ThirtyYears war. The event took place on May 23 1683 when Roman Catholicofficials stopped the construction of protestant chapels in Broumovand Hrob. This was in violation of the religious liberties laid downby Emperor Rudolf II. The officials were found guilty of violatingthe liberties set out under the Letter of Majesty. The officials werepunished by being thrown out of windows from a building that resultedin no injuries. This event marked the start of the Bohemian revoltagainst the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II.
Woods, T. (2012).How the Catholic Church built western civilization. New York:Regenry.