TheResult of Preparing Teachers to Work in Inclusive Classrooms
The investigation of teacher’s attitudes toward mainstreaming andinclusion to facilitate their preparation for inclusive classroomscontinue to widen since the passage of IDEA. The Acknowledgement ofthe mandate to provide services to students in the least restrictiveenvironment implies an increasing need to prepare educators for moreintegrated learning environments led to a meta-analysis of surveydata from 28 studies spanning 37 years (1958-1995) and including10,560 general education and special education teachers. It was foundout that nearly two thirds of general education teachers surveyedsupported the concept of mainstreaming/inclusion. More than half feltthat mainstreaming/inclusion could provide some benefits, but lessthan one third believed that they had sufficient time, training, orresources necessary to implement it.
Summary of theResearch Design
The researchdesign in this case was an initiative of its own kind that assistededucators to give their learners having physical and learningdisabilities equal access in the science labs, field by offeringtraining and resources. It was named The CLASS project (CreatingLaboratory Access for Science Students)
The study was a qualitative one whose sampling methods related toboth dependent and dependent variables. A multipoint Likert scalesurvey and questionnaires that were completed by participants (N =20) in about four workshops. Large gains were reported byparticipants in their readiness to teach science to disabledstudents. Gains were also reported by participants in theirfamiliarity with instructional strategies, curricula, and sufficientresources for students with disabilities. Shifts in attitudes onteaching science to disabled students were noted. These variablesincluded (a) administrative support, (b) special education personnelsupport, (c) general effective teaching skills, (d) relevantcurriculum, (e) an accepting, positive class environment, (f) peerassistance, and (g) disability-specific teaching skills.
The CLASS (Creating Laboratory Access for Science Students) Projectuses professional development workshops to prepare educators forinclusive classrooms, thereby helping them eliminate barriers fortheir students. The major aim CLASS is to increase the representationof individuals with disabilities pursuing careers in or related toscience, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
The clarity of this research makes me realize its importance disabledpersons with disabilities have struggled for long to get equitableoutcomes in all fields in life, employment, education and independentliving. Most disabled students were excluded from public schoolsroutinely until when the Education of All Handicapped Children Act(EHA) was passed in 1975, The EHA, currently reauthorized as theIndividuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mandates anappropriate public schooling for students in the least restrictiveenvironment. , its believability is also of significance since thelaw states that disabled children are to be educated together withtheir normally developing peers to the maximum extent possible,,unless in the case of education with the use of supplementary aidesand services are unachievable. Commonly known as inclusion, thisright of every student to access general education requires specialand general education teachers to assume new collaborative roles bysharing expertise and engaging in joint problem solving
The quality of the literature review was quite satisfactory as we gotto get information from a number of authors of different literaturematerials. The relevance of the design in comparison to the samplingmethods does not coincide with the results achieved and hence I wouldhave changed the research methods that were used and acquire methods that could effectively argue and yield perfect findings andrecommendations for instance, Their list of recommendations alignedclosely with the results of qualitative studies performed to uncoverthe variables that seem related to successful inclusive scienceinstruction At least two surveys designed to uncover the attitudesof science teachers toward inclusion have been conducted. Accordingto the article, Chung (1998) conducted a survey on more than 350teachers to examine instructional adaptations, policies of grading,testing and perceptions about inclusion. Perceptions of scienceteachers about inclusion practices were mixed–many teachers favoredinclusion, but many disapproved.
The literary information about the survey of elementary teachers,middle and high school level teachers, and university-level scienceeducators (N = 189) about their experiences, preparedness, andattitudes toward including individuals with disabilities in science.They proved that science teachers and professors possess littleexperience and training regarding teaching disabled students. Surveyparticipants also displayed stereotypical views of what students withdisabilities can and cannot do. In addition to the survey, In thatsurvey, each participant was asked to "list major concerns thatrelated to teaching science to disabled" The concerns most oftenmentioned by K-12 educators were (a) inadequate preparation regardingteaching science to students with disabilities, (b) limited knowledgeabout methods and adaptations for students with disabilities, (c)lack of time for planning and individualized instruction, (d) largeclass sizes, (e) inadequate space and materials, (f) safety andliability issues, (g) support from administrators, and (h)expectations, assessment, and grading for students with disabilities.The results of this survey were in keeping with the other surveys ofgeneral educators that preceded it.
The Internal validity is a measure of how confounding variablesarecontrolled. It is also, Confounding variables (factors not controlledin the study) can influence the results.Threats to InternalValidity
The results came from an internal validitywhose threat was According to the researchers of this design, theirconclusions in relation to the study were indeed correct but thefluctuations in the independent variables that were used in thesampling methods of this research are responsible for the observedchanges and variations in the dependent variables. In addition tothat, the variations in the dependent variables will be attributed toother causes. Even when there is agreement on the meaning ofinclusion, the culture of the classroom and the school, itself,shapes the ways inclusive programs are implemented found fewrelationships between teachers` beliefs about the importance ofchildren learning social skills and the actions those teachers tookto promote social interactions. Furthermore, even though integratingspecial therapies within early childhood classroom activities andschedules is advocated as best practice in early intervention"pull-out," or out-of-the-room, treatment continues to bethe predominant model for providing services to students withdisabilities in preK-12 settings
From the other perspective of the educational spectrum, middle andhigh school teachers` emphasis on content-area curriculum coveragemay be at odds with the concept of inclusion. "General educatorswho are driven to cover the curriculum at a rapid pace may not havepositive attitudes toward students who cause their pace to beinterrupted."
Inclusive ScienceEducation: Classroom Teacher and Science EducatorExperiences inCLASS Workshops. By: Kerch, Susan A., Bargerhuff, MaryEllen,Turner, Heidi, School Science & Mathematics, 00366803,April2005, Vol. 105, Issue 4