TheNature of Conflict
A. Conflictexists at interpersonal, evolutionary, and intrapersonal levels or atlevels of manifestations, personalities, and potentiality.
Since conflict is an expressed struggle concerning at least two mutually dependent parties, expressed struggle arrests the conception that conflict does not subsist unless the people involved know that the disagreement exists (Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus 49).
Expressed struggle refers to differences that people manifest in trying to satisfy their needs and welfares, but usually encounter intrusion from each other in attaining these objectives (Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus 49).
In about 80% of conflicts, an initiating incident stimulates an expressed struggle (Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus 51).
For instance, a staff member is accused of theft, setting off successions of talks climaxing in the staff’s petition to the board that the claimant be dismissed.
Alternatively, a person who co-owns a business with another arrives at the premises to find the business closed. In both situations, a prompting event brings the conflict to everybody’s responsiveness. Studies show that expressed struggles are significant elements that contribute to conflicts in management (Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus 50).
Perceived incompatible goals i.e. situations where the goals or objectives of the parties involved are mutually exclusive, result to conflicts
Incompatibility of goals contributes to around 60% of conflicts (Jehn and Mannix 239).
Parties mostly engage in conflict because of goals that they deny are significant to them (Jehn and Mannix 239). As such, parties may want the same or different thing.
For instance, a want for position one in the class, where parties will see the goals as discordant since they want the same thing.
A study by Jehn and Mannix (250) reveals that management conflicts arise due to people’s different struggles.
In evaluating their interests, people will usually cultivate conflict since incompatible goals means different means of evaluating interests.
According to Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus conflicts mostly arise in situations where management processes lack compatible means of evaluating interests, which contribute greatly to conflicts in managements (52).
In addition, Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus claim that evaluation of interests cause people to develop different processes (52).
Evaluation of interests contributes to around 70% of all management conflicts based on research conducted in Fortune companies (Jehn and Mannix, 250)
In scenarios where people perceive resources as scarce, then they will usually develop conflict.
According to Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus close to 30% of organizational conflicts arise from perceived scarce resources (53).
Instances of perceived scarce resources include scenarios in employee compensation where conflict will arise over coveted raise.
A study on development of conflict in management found that perception that resources are scarce contributes to more than 40% of all conflicts especially among junior staffs
Interdependence captures the conception that parties to a conflict are usually dependent on each other.
According to Rahim, all conflicts arise from scenarios where the parties are dependent since conflicts occur where people interrelate (103).
At least two parties are concerned in a conflict thus, interdependence is the most significant aspect of conflict (Rahim 104).
Rahim (105) has carried out a research, which has established that all conflicts arise in scenarios of interdependence.
The evaluation of interdependence starts with the notion that conflict is not about unalterable opposition.
According to Jehn and Mannix the evaluation of interdependence becomes important in the sense that the differences must have some adjustment (251).
People must evaluate the adjustments required to resolve conflict.
The evaluation of environmental elements concerning the conflict becomes highly significant in understanding the nature and methods of resolving conflict.
As Rahim asserts, people must evaluate conflict on the perceptions of the situations surrounding all parties and the factors that contribute to the conflict (109).
For instance, people must evaluate external factors such as associations and management processes.
(Transition:Let us now turn our attention to the styles of expressing conflict)
Deutsch, Morton, Peter T. Coleman, and Eric C. Marcus, eds. Thehandbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice. John Wiley& Sons, 2011.
Jehn, Karen A., and Elizabeth A. Mannix. "The dynamic nature ofconflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and groupperformance." Academy of management journal 44.2 (2001):238-251.
Rahim, M. Afzalur. Managing conflict in organizations.Transaction Publishers, 2011.