The Human-Computer Interface 6
Hapticfeedback simply refers to the haptics, that is, the use of sense oftouch to give a command. This technology uses a touch sense in a userinterface device to provide information to an end user (Radi, 2012).For instance, mobile phones and other similar devices use vibrationalarm to send information to the touched button. The device mayrespond in a form of vibration after touching the screen. Other formsof haptic feedback are the resistive force from the joysticks andvideo games steering wheels. Haptic feedback technology is applicablein various electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops,iphones, and iPods. Firstly, haptic feedback is used in tactileelectronic displays to present information in tactile form. There aretwo types of electronic displays: optacon and refreshable Brailledisplay. Secondly, haptic feedback is applicable in tele-operatorsand in simulators. Computers simulate these devices in order toprovide the force feedback. Since these devices do not have physicalsense, haptic feedback is generated for operator control. Inaddition, scientists use haptic technology to represent data by touchsensations. Thirdly, haptic technology is commonly used in videogames. Simple haptic technology is commonly used to form joysticks,game controllers, and steering wheels. Fourthly, personal computersand mobile devices have haptic feedback incorporated in them.Currently, tactile haptic feedback is common in most cellular phones.Cell phone manufacturer like LG, Nokia, and Samsung are includinghaptic feedback on their devices.
Scientistsbreak down memory into various groups and subgroups. A human memoryrefers to a complicated synapse and nerves that are activated byelectronic currents. Psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophersdefine memory as a complex system that does not have simple means ofdescription. There are three types of human memory: short-termmemory, long-term memory, and sensory (Rogers, Sharp, and Preece,2011). A short-term memory is able to recall temporary informationthat has not being stored in the brain for a long time. Long-termmemory refers to the permanent storage of information in the brain.This memory has the capability to derive information that has been inthe brain for a long period. On the other hand, sensory memory is themost short-term memory element. It has the ability to retainimpressions of sensory information, but does not store informationfor a long period.
TheHuman-computer interface also adopts the types of human memory in itsworking. For instance, in the human-computer interface, sensorymemory is its first stage in the process. Before a computer writesinformation on a hard disk, the user enters information in the systemthrough an input device. Sensory memory is very short and temporaryin computers just like in human beings. In computers, short-termmemory refers to the working memory. This information is available inthe system until the user pays attention to it. On the other hand,long-term memory refers to the permanent memory and is available to along time (Rogers et al., 2011).
Aconsistency in the human-computer interface in a machine is veryadvantageous. The system of a machine is always fast and assures theuser of the good storage of his or her information (Zaphiris andKurniawan, 2007). In an electronic device, the frequency ofprocessing information depends on the type of the human-computerinterface. The better the human-computer interface, the faster theinformation process and the better the services of a machine.Therefore, inconsistency in the human-computer interface means thatthe device has a slow information process. In addition, there islikelihood that information can easily get lost. The device may alsofail to save information, and may interfere with other applicationinstalled in the device. This can be frustrating to the user.
User-centricdesign process, also referred as user-centered design process (USD)is an approach to an interactive system development that focuses onmaking a system usable (Graimann, 2010). The user-centered designfocuses on the usability goals, environment, tasks, usercharacteristics, and workflow of an interface. The process follows aseries of methods and techniques for analysis and evaluation ofmainstream software, hardware, and web interfaces. The process isalso iterative process whereby the design and evaluation depends onall stages. In a case where basic techniques and principles are thesame, there are different variations of UCD that exit. The followingare the basic USD process steps. The first step involves analysis.This is the evaluation of the visions, goals, and objectives of aprocess (Graimann, 2010). Further, this step involves user/audienceanalysis that elaborates the user categories list, the usercategories matrix, knowledge, experience, and skills. Next, the USDdoes task and purpose analysis. This involves task list and user-taskmatrix analysis. Later, information architecture analysis followsthat involves analysis of content list, hierarchy, web relationship,and content-user matrix. Eventually, this step ends with workflowanalysis that involves workflows and scenarios.
Thesecond step is the designing that involves navigation design,detailed design, paper prototypes design, and functional onlineprototypes designs. The third step involves evaluation also referredas iterate back to design. This step involves design walkthroughs,heuristic evaluation, guidelines reviews, and usability testing. Thelast step is implementation and deployment that involves dataanalysis and report (Graimann, 2010).
Human-computerinterface also known as man-machine interaction is represented withthe emerging of computer. Human motion analysis provides patternmotion and body pose. In addition, it provides delayed and immediateanalysis and play back. According to (Dargahi, Najarian, Arbatani,Sokhanvar, 2013) and human motion is the configuration estimated fromdifferent types of technology. Human motion plays various roles inthe design of the human-computer interface it determineseffectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction of the machine user.Firstly, human motion improves the effectiveness of a machine.According to research, human motions are a safer means of exercising.Additionally, it creates users awareness of his or her weakness inextremities, as well as identifying potential safety issues. The samecase apply to a machine, human-computer interface improves theeffectiveness of the machine. Secondly, the research as proved thehuman motion improves efficiency. From a research conducted on twelveindividuals, all of those who practiced human motion were found tohave high efficiency. Correspondingly, human-computer interface playsa major role in increasing its efficiency of a machine. Lastly, humanmotion is said to increase user satisfaction. According to researchconducted by university students, participants commented positivelyand negatively on the experiences of human motion (Dargahi et al,2003). Further, human motion deals with the flow of control in thedesign of a machine. The interaction guides the user on how to use amachine hence, the user does not need to recall all the commandsfrom memory. This makes the user response input to bestraightforward.
Dargahi,J., Najarian, S., Arbatani, S., & Sokhanvar, S. (2013). Tactilesensing and display: Haptic feedback for minimally invasive surgeryand robotics.Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Graimann,B. (2010). Brain-ComputerInterfaces: Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction.Berlin: Springer Berlin.
Radi,M. (2012). Workspacescaling and haptic feedback for industrial telepresence andteleaction systems with heavy-duty teleoperators.München: Herbert Utz Verlag.
Rogers,Y., Sharp, H., & Preece, J. (2011). Interactiondesign: Beyond human-computer interaction.Chichester: Wiley.
Zaphiris,P., & Kurniawan, S. (2007). Humancomputer interaction research in Web design and evaluation.Hershey, Pa: Idea Group Pub.