Advancedin 1969 by the US DAPRA (Department of Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency), TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/InternetProtocol) is a production-standard collection of protocols intendedfor huge internet networks traversing extensive area of network.Then, the agency designed the model to proffer high-speedcommunication network associations. Today, TCP/IP model acts as aninteracting software grounded on industry-usual networkingprocedures. The model is also a routable, initiative networkingprocedure that backs the linking of a computer to WAN and LANenvironments. The model acts as an essential technology and servicefor linking computer with unrelated systems and input informationhence, it allows people to obtain access to universal internetservices such as File Transfer Protocol, email and WWW. As such, themodel compresses protocols such as SMTP, FTP, HTTP, POP3, HTTPS,IMAP, and Telnet among others.
Meinel &Sack (2013) assert that the strategy for computer management haschanged dramatically over the years with engineers and analystsfocusing more on software rather than hardware. However, theprinciple of divide and conquer has created problems for theregulation of tasks when using models and protocols as the creationof different protocols may allow for efficient networking andinterconnection. Likewise, Newton, Jeffay & Aikat (2013) arguethat the evolution of the internet has affected the flow of datawithin different systems thus, trends in HTTP and WWW have led tolonger connection periods, safe and efficient use of the network. Assuch, people need to understand the separation of web traffic toobtain high levels of efficiencies.
Bhatti, Singh R & Singh P (2013) present a remarkable assessmenton the layers of a TCP/IP model and the way the layers work. As such,Bhatti, Singh R & Singh P (2013) assert that the model is acollection of network standards that stipulate the particulars on theway computers connect for interrelating networks. In addition, theauthors present a comprehensive information about the model byexplaining the role of every layer, the entire study of hardwarecomponents required for data communication. On the other hand, Thaler(2011) claims that IP has proffered a network-layer connectivityprovision to upper layer procedures and applications. Thaler (2011)claims that today, people still misunderstand the service model of IPprotocols hence, it is important to understand the evolution of themodel to comprehend the properties of the model and future trendsthat can alter the model. As such, Thaler (2011) assert thatunderstanding the properties and evolution of the model is the onlyway that people can understand the protocols and applications of themodel.
Muffels et al(2012) contend that TCP/IP model plays numerous roles in overseeingthe interconnection and programming of different applications. Forexample, Muffels et al (2012) assert that people can use GENIE todispense, accomplish, and implement multiple model runs via theTCP/IP structures. Conversely, Langer, French & Segovis, (2011)assert that TCP/IP have a wide range of use in different applicationsusing LAN or WAN. For example, the model is widely used in radiologyby assuming LAN and WAN, and although the speed differs depending onthe network used, the model allows a critical evaluation of radiologyapplications.
Ren & Lin(2011) claim that the strength of the model depends on the bandwidthvariation employed. In fact, Ren & Lin (2011) claim thatbandwidth dissimilarity degrades the TCP performance in a 3G network.As such, one needs to use a split assembly Window Reworking proxy andkeep the length of the queue in Node-B around the reference value. Onthe other hand, Cho & Heo (2013) contend that TCP/IP widelyeffective in a remote control system although one needs to understandthe packet loss and time delay associated with the control system. Inaddition, anomalous operations in network systems can severely affectthe constancy and reliability of the system used within a TCP/IPmodel. Feng, Han, Yu, Tari, Li & Hu (2011) suggest that TCP/IPmodel is an ideal model for use in network systems that have Windowsor non-Windows capability but anomalies in the model may mean aneffective capability and utilization. As such, it is essential for aperson to use a second order sliding to correct the anomalies thatmay arise when using the model.
Boucher et al(2010) assert that a user can utilize INIC (Intelligent NetworkInterface Card) or a CPD (Communication Processing Device) toaccelerate data transfer in a host CPU. Such devices allow a TCP/IPmodel to work efficiently without major instabilities andinconsistencies.
TCP/IP modelprovides dependable, methodical and error-checked distribution of astream of octets between programs running on computers connected toan intranet, public internet, or a local area network. The modelprovides basic utilities that enable windows-based computers to linkand share data with other systems such as IBM mainframes, MicrosoftWindows systems, UNIX systems, Open VMS systems, Internet Hosts, LANManager, Apple Macintosh, and Network-ready printers. A TCP/IP modelis grounded on a four-layer reference model where all procedures orprotocols that belong to a TCP/IP protocol collection are positionedin the upper layer. As shown below, each stratum of the model linksto one or more strata of the seven-layer OSI (Open SystemsInterconnection) orientation model suggested by the ISO(International Standards Organization).
Themodel splits networking roles into discrete layers mentioned belowwhere each layer perform a specific role and is transparent to thelayer below and over it hence, a TCP/IP model allows one toconceptualize how networks should work.
The application layer describes the model’s protocols and the wayhost programs line with transport layer facilities to use the networkand includes such protocols like HTTP, DNS, FTP, SMTP, Telnet, andSNMP among others. On the other hand, the transport layer deliverscommunication assembly administration between host computers andincludes protocols such as RTP and UDP while the internet layercorresponds data into IP programs and encompasses IP, ICMP, RARP, andARP. The network interface layer stipulates details of howinformation is physically distributed through the network andincludes Ethernet, Frame relay, token ring, and v35 among others. Onthe other hand, the model includes several protocols such as IP, UDP,TCP, IGMP, ARP, and ICMP where each protocol resolves a specificissue.
Considering thelayers and the protocols used in the model, it is essential tounderstand the applications of the TCP/IP model in DNS, email, HTTP,WWW, network management, file transfer, and remote login protocols.The DNS (Domain Name System) allows one to map host names to IPaddresses or from IP to names thus, one can locate addresses,delegate a subtree, map addresses, name a host, or denote the startof a subtree. In addition, one can use the model in data transfer andsending or receiving emails through HTTP or WWW. By using the modelas a network management, one can display, manage, and regulate anetwork. As such one uses LAN or WAN to connect a network and allowthe management of such networks.
TCP/IP model hasallowed the management of network systems by using layers andapplications. In addition, the use of IP security providesauthentication, integrity of data, and confidentiality hence, themodel has allowed for efficient data management and networking.Widely used in different applications, the model allows theintegration and connection of networks thus, it has assisted in theevolution of software protocols.
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Cho, Y. H., & Heo, H. (2013, October). Uncertainty modeling incommunication for remote control system based on stochastic hybridsystem approach. In Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS), 201313th International Conference on (pp. 1821-1824). IEEE.
Feng, Y., Han, F., Yu, X., Tari, Z., Li, L., & Hu, J. (2011,December). Terminal sliding mode observer for anomaly detection inTCP/IP networks. In Computer Science and Network Technology(ICCSNT), 2011 International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 617-620).IEEE.
Langer, S. G., French, T., & Segovis, C. (2011). TCP/IPoptimization over wide area networks: implications for teleradiology.Journal of digital imaging, 24(2), 314-321.
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