STATE OF NATURE 4
Hodds(1904), defines the “state of nature” as the human conditionwithout government. He argues that it is possible for people to livewithout any government and without laws and regulations. He thenclaims that “state of nature” life is nasty, brutish, solitary,and short. Naturally, human beings are essentially selfish, andliving a life without laws and regulations, they would kill and hurteach other without valid reasons. However, he believes that, inreality, the “state of nature” does not exist, but it is ahypothetical situation. In this form, men are logically andabsolutely self-interested, and they consider themselves equal. Inaddition, there are limited resources and limited altruism. Further,there is no power to motivate men to be cooperative.
Hobbesgives several potential societal outcome of “state of nature.”First, he believes that life would be terribly brutal (Chung, 2014).This is because people are always self-interested and they do notcare about the life of other people. Secondly, every person wouldlive in fear of losing life as there would be high cases of murder.Thirdly, it is impossible to have a long-term cooperation. Fourthly,men will have no capacity to ensure long-term satisfaction of theirneeds or desires. Fifthly, there would a state of perpetual andunavoidable war. Further, there would be no morality, justice orsocial goods. That is, there would be poor industries, education, andhousing, among others.
Hobbesurges that “state of nature” system is not the best, and anysocieties need to avoid it. At first, people should be willing toescape from it and create a civil society. Then, people should choosea monarchy system with some individuals holding various positions(Bobbio, 2003). They should make an agreement that they will not harmone another, and they will rely on each other to make an agreement.
Bobbio,N. (2003). ThomasHobbes and the natural law tradition.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chung,H. (2014, February 18). Hobbes`s State of Nature: A Modern BayesianGame-Theoretic Analysis. Academia.edu.Retrieved May 21, 2014, fromhttp://www.academia.edu/3718264/Hobbess_State_of_Nature_A_Modern_Bayesian_Game-Theoretic_Analysis
Hobbes,T., & In Waller, A. R. (1904). Leviathan:Or, The matter, forme & power of a commonwealth, ecclesiasticaland civil.Cambridge: University Press.