Philosophy:Paley’s Teleological Argument and Descartes` Method of Doubt
Theteleological argument works in a way to show that a superior beingexists that created the universe in wonderfully and organized manner.The superior being put all things in their right places. Furthermore,to the functionality of the universe that seems very complex Contraryto other theories such as evolution theory by Charles Darwin.Teleological theories explain the superior being as being the finalforce in the creation. The proponents argue that no human being couldbe able to develop such a complicated design other than a superior.The complex nature of the universe is the main reason for theadvancement of the teleological argument .according to Paley justlike we have a watch maker who makes complex watches similarly, wehave a universe maker who made nature in its various complexities andfunctionalities .The universe creator made it with a certain goal tomeet various functionalities that were intended just as a watch makermakes them with a view of checking time. The complexity of theuniverse is the most convincing thing about the teleologicalarguments.
Oneof the notable objections to the teleological arguments is the viewthat the human nature did not have a clue of who made the watch thathowever, exists. Similarly, in spite of the world`s complexitiessomeone created it not known to man to date. Underscoring the factthat being necessarilyunknown does not mean that the universe wasmade by a special maker that is the universe make. The objection goeson arguing that just like it is not known how the work of making awatch was accomplished similarly , the failure to identify howuniverse creation was made should not act as a catalyst to makelogical conclusions that a superior being exists who made theuniverse. However, according to Paley, failure to know the watchmaker does not automatically lead to concluding that a superioruniverse maker does not exist. Again he goes on to counter arguingthat the experience of making a universe is massive and occurred onlyonce as opposed to watches that are continuously being modified andnew models produced.In conclusion it is clear that the two areincomparable as they are not on the same pedal.
Theother objection is the imperfect operation of the world. This acts asa lead to the absence of a universe maker with special abilities. Theideal example is the natural disaster occurrences and evil practicesin the universe at all. The objection revolves around the point thatthat if a designer made the world with a specific goal suchmalfunctions would be in evident in the universe. Furthermore,presence of practices done by the human kind such as theft, killingeach other and oppression of other does not represent a specialdesigned version of an object. Thus it acts a as lead to indicatethat the world is filled with imperfections all over it.Additionally, frequent occurrence of earthquakes, floods and othernatural calamities fail to point to a universe made by a designer.However the comparison of a universe to a watch is irrational as awatch involves several people in its setting up as opposed to theuniverse which was made by one superior being
Finally,the third objection to the existence of a superior being is the ideathat some of the components seem to be unemployed in any function yetthe universe is claimed to be specially designed. The functionless ofsome of the component of the nature raises serious doubt about theexistence of a special force involved in the creation of theuniverse. He reason why doubt is raised is because a designer makes aproduct whose all part are functional in totality .this is incomplete reverse to the whose several components seem to be unemployed in any countable function. As a result it can be clearlysaid that the main aim of a watch is to time while the universe`spurpose is still unknown to date since some of the components are nonfunctional. However it can be argued that it the human kind failureto identify the various purposes since the creator of the universegave them full command over it. Thus it can be considered as humanbeing short coming.
Descartes`Method of Doubt
Humanlife is full of various complexities key among them is the art ofdoubt in man. For a very long time, individuals have been known attimes to question that which they trust most due doubt arising fromvarious fears in life. An ideal example it the methodic doubt byDescartes. It lays emphasis on the importance of questioningeverything right from what can be seen by our senses to our thinkingand more so the various teachings we get from various sources inlife. In the methodic doubt he lays stress to the art of doubtingeverything we are uncertain about including slightest doubt. Heraised the important point that senses can be deceptive at timeshence the need to thoroughly audit everything we come across. Thiswould as a key issue to avoid being deceived in life. Descartesencourage person to examine everything since some are only illusionsjust like dreams when we fall asleep that turn out to be mereillusions when a person wakes up. He encourages person to exercisetheir autonomy to think to make personal decision s instead ofrelying on other peoples thought to reason for them.
Descartesarrive at his cogito argument “I think therefore I am”. That heachieved through self evaluation meditation on various real lifeissues. Key among them is his proof that one can only trust theirminds not their bodies since they are deceptive at times. He came tolearn that what our eyesight presented us with would vary accordingto times thus interpreting that our senses are sometimes erroneousthus we can only trust our minds if we use them autonomously withoutany influence whatsoever .he also considered when persons are intheir dreams and while awake he contrasted the various experiences inthe two events and came to conclusion we can only trust our minds. Heemphasizes on the being knowledgeable about out our surrounding sincethe knowledge aids the mind in thinking and avoids deceptivesituations in life. An ideal example is used that Descartes pointseven if he imagines that he thinks the following do not existincluding the sky, God, in the universe but he chooses to believethey are there then he can without any shred of doubt believe heexist since he thinks. The given experience justifies his famouscogito statement.
However,Descartes epistemology allow for certainty when the requirement ofthinking for oneself is met. This refers to the art of depending onlyon our brains to make decisions thus not relying on our senses asthey deceive us regularly. Descartes emphasizes on trusting only ourbrains if they are thinking. He asserts we can only prove certaintythrough thinking for ourselves since the brains convinces us. Similarto Descartes experience, he states that he believe God exists throughuse of his own mind thinking and convincing himself whichunderscores the need of being in the right state of our mind whilethinking to achieve certainty in our surrounding environments.Certainty can only be achieved through thorough meditation our brainsto prove the certainty. Since some of the things we trust may beuntrue in real sense.
ReneDescartes is considered to be a modern since he related philosophy tothe pure and natural sciences as opposed to the medieval philosopherwhose knew little or no difference between philosophy and theologythat were mainly not knowledge based. The medieval philosopheropposed any in any relationship between faith and reasoning such asscience as incompatible .however Descartes appreciated the role ofscience as opposed to the medieval philosophers. He went a notchhigher make people understand that theology acted as philosophy`sfoundation in real sense. In addition to that Descartes is rationalphilosopher since he believes that only one can authoritatively maketheir own decision and convince themselves. He even doubts thevalidity of empirical rules such as addition hence he is not anempirical philosopher.