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Timeis eternal for it knows no beginning and no end. However, with men’sexistence, years, months, hours, and minutes emerged. The world cameto know about what has been, still is, and will be. What happenedyesterday is no longer part of today. Happenings that transpire todaywill no longer be part of tomorrow. Time does not wait for people.Time is considered as money for time spent is a forever loss. Hence,when a person is on the peak of his or her career, he got to strikehard while the iron is still hot because when that time flies, itmight never return again.

Timeis also the best healer of wounds. All people are emotional. Whenpeople harbor negative emotions such as anger, fear, jealousy, andenvy, they lose their reason and they act in haste which usuallyleads to serious consequences. They may be sorry later on but thedamage has been committed. Time is a counselor because through time,people grow. Their experiences in life hone them to become the personthat they are now or the person that they will be in the future.

Thosewho are not aware of the significance of time tend to waste it andprocrastinate. Time is a suicide. By wasting time, the person harmshimself. People may go on thinking how to make use of their time. Thewise, on the other hand, make use of their time fruitfully. Time hasall the power to allow men to conquer what they wish to conquer butthis all depends on the determination that man has in conquering thatwhich he wishes to conquer.


Prayeris an act of worshipping God. Through prayer, we proclaim the gloryof God. Prayer is the acceptance of the intellect and will – ofmind and heart – of God’s dominion over the created universe. Thehighest goal of man, the noblest of his actions, is the recognitionand the hallowing of God’s Name in thoughts and in deeds in theworld. Prayer is internal when it consists of acts of the intellectand will, such as in making an act of faith or in mental prayer inpraise of God. Prayer is external when it consists of commanded actsof honoring or paying homage to God, such as kneeling down or ingiving alms to the poor.

Prayer,both internal and external, is either public or private. It isprivate when it is done by the individual by his own privateinitiative. It is public when it is done in participation with othermen in communal adoration or homage of God, such as images orprocessions, or offering of sacrifices in religious services. Man hasa natural tendency to pray. This implies that he has a naturalcapacity of knowing God. It is natural because man, by his ownintellectual powers, discovers the presence of God as Creator andSupreme Lawgiver. It is said that we accept God’s existence as amatter of faith. Francis Reilley argues that religious belief in Godis true if it fits, rather than contradicts, rational knowledge ofnature and human person. In the realm of conduct, he cites that thedistinction between what is objectively good and objectively evilpoints to the existence of a law, which though clarified by men, is“not simply made by human thinkers, no matter how wise.


Hope,for most people, is understood as wishful thoughts for something tocome into fruition. This is not, however, what that Bible tells usabout hope. Hope means confident expectation, a strong assuranceconcerning things that are unknown and unclear.

Attimes, when we dream of something that we hope to become, and lifehurls stones of obstacles in our way, we tend to easily give up. Aperson who is hopeful is aware that when God created us, God was theone who put the desire in our heart that would not only bring us joyand fulfillment in life but would also accomplish His purposes forus. This is the essence of hope. Hope is about having the confidencethat everything that happens in our life happens for a reason. Hopeis about having the faith that God will take us out from our darksituation and will redeem us.

Ifwe maintain that God is in control and that we will prevail, indeedwe will. Hope is by acting as if we have achieved what we have hopedfor. To be associated with Christ is to be positive it is an outcomeof being filled with the Spirit of GOD. There should be no such thingas a pessimistic Christian. A person who is hopeful is not easilyshaken by life’s circumstances such as difficult or lonelysituations. A person who is hopeful is aware that things we areexperiencing now will soon come to pass. A person who does not hopeis always in doubt about the certainty of things. This way ofthinking and feeling tends to weaken the spirit and causes the personto feel dejected.


Passions,or concupiscence, are either tendencies towards objects that aredesirable or tendencies away from undesirable or harmful objects. Teformer are called positive emotions the latter, negative emotions.The positive emotions include desire, love, delight, hope, andbravery. The negative emotions include horror, hatred, despair, fear,and anger. Passions are responses of the psyche. As such, they aremoral or immoral. Man is bound to regulate his feelings and submit topassion to the control of reason.

Passionsare either antecedent or consequent. Antecedents are those thatprecede an act. It may happen that a person is emotionally aroused toperform an act. Antecedent passions predispose a person to act. Thuslove may induce one to make numerous and lengthy phone calls to hissweetheart, or to plot the murder of a rival.

Antecedentpassions weaken the will power of a person without having to obstructfreedom completely. Thus, the so called “Crimes of passion” arevoluntary. But insofar as passions interfere with the freedom of thewill, one’s accountability is diminished. Consequent passions arethose that are intentionally stimulated and kept. Consequent passionsare voluntary in cause, the result of the will playing the strings ofemotions. Thus, a young man may deliberately arouse himself sexuallyby reading pornographic magazines or a victim of injustice mayintentionally nurse his resentment towards his tormentor. The youngman who commits lasciviousness after arousing himself sexually andthe fellow who commits vengeance due to his cultivated resentment areboth morally accountable.


Fearis the disturbance of the mind of a person who is confronted by animpending danger or harm to himself or loved ones. Distinction ismade however between an act done with fear and an act done out orbecause of fear. Certain actions which by nature are dangerous orrisky are done with varying degree of fear. Climbing a mountain,riding on an airplane through a storm, diving, or arresting anotorious killer are examples of acts performed with fear. In thesecases, fear is a normal response of danger. Such actions arevoluntary because the doer is in full control of his faculties andacts in spite of his fear.

Fearis an instinct for self-preservation. We even fear new experiences orsituations such as embarking on a long a journey, being left alone ina strange place, or being asked to speak before a group of people.However, doing something out of fear, or because of it, is entirelydifferent. Here, fear becomes a positive force compelling a person toact without careful deliberation. The child reads his book out offear of the mother the employee volunteers to work over-time out offear of being fired by the boss a friend stops smoking out of fearof contracting cancer. These examples show how actions are donebecause of fear. Fear modifies the freedom of the doer, inducing himto act in a certain predetermined manner, most often in the absenceof his full consent.


Theworld is made up of developed and developing nations. A developingnation is one that lacks material wealth, yet this does not entailthat the people are deprived of having these material wealth. Rather,people merely do not have the means to obtain that wealth. Adeveloped nation entails a country with a robust economy. Yet thisdoes not mean that all citizens are well-off. In some corners ofdeveloped nations are the homeless and the unemployed.

Thereare several factors that are believed to be the causes of poverty.History notes that majority of poor nations were under the bondage ofthe pronounced influences of the nineteenth and twentieth eras. A lotof nations lacked a crucial amount of natural resources.Approximately fifty-percent of poverty at present exists in conflictaffected and fragile states.

Poverty is brought about by inequality in the distribution of wealth.Globalization has produced massive wealth in past decades however itspower is compelled by economic strength instead of democraticideologies. This was most ostensible in international trade rules.The rules have thwarted unindustrialized nations from replicatingproven replicas of industrialization.

Thereare many causes of poverty. Due to poverty, a lot of children fail toget an education thereby leading to achievement gap. Because ofachievement gap, learners are not equipped with the essentialknowledge to help them acquire a good job in the future. Failure toget a good job results to ongoing poverty. In some schools, racismand poverty are said to diminish the ability of a child to learn.This eventually sets the child to attainment of more failures.

Pleasureand Joy

Happinessis an emotional or mental condition of health illustrated by pleasantor positive feelings varying from deep joy to contentment. Variousphilosophical, biological, religious, and psychological strategieshave provided the definition for happiness and its sources. Researchstudies such as positive psychology strive to apply the scientificmethod to respond to questions concerning what happiness is all aboutand how it can be achieved. Religious thinkers and philosophersdefine happiness as a state of enjoying a good and successful life.

Itis broadly recognized that factors affecting the mental state mayimpact psychological wellbeing and physical functioning. Thesefactors function positively in stimulating good health. This conceptdoes not merely reside among advocates of holistic medicine itlikewise has a strong root in psychology. There is a strong evidencefor the negative impacts of mental distress on the wellbeing of humanbeings. Mental distress includes depression, hostility, and anxietyand there are likewise signs for the advantageous impacts of positivemental conditions including positive emotions.

Inthis framework, it is usually understood that happiness iscontributing to physical wellbeing. It is assumed that happiness aidsin healing the sick and it offers protection to people in positivehealthy ways. Psychologistsposit that the emotional conditions of an individual are mentalexpression produced by the brain. Such idea is not true becauseemotions play a crucial role with the functioning of the body and theheart as they do with the brain. To find pleasure and joy, it isimportant to feed the soul with positive thoughts.

Philosophy,the Guide of Life

Human as we are, we tend toalways find meaning in everything that goes on with our life. We tendto give association to things. By nature, humans, when confrontedwith problems or significant matters that require decision making,they tend to dwell into these concerns, figuring out the best actionto take. Human beings are designed as mechanism that entangles theseverely tangled issues. In doing so, people seek for answers on whycertain events happen, how they happened, and what the implicationsof those events are. Traditionally, people made association ofseveral things. For instance, theinvention of pyramids is believed to be in response to spiritual andartistic endeavors.

Fromthe top view of the pyramid, concentration of energy exists on twosides. The apex is believed to absorb all kinds of energy forces. Theshape of pyramids radiates energy that brings about healing power.There are still other significant beliefs that people have faith in.Even colors are given meanings. For instance, white symbolizespurity. Red signifies love. Blue entails peace. The meanings of eachentity vary across states and countries depending on how they usethese words to give meaning to another.

Ibelieve that all mortals have the capacity to figure things out.While some people solve their problems by sharing them with peopleclose to them, other individuals prepare solving their problems alonein order for them to clearly know what they really desire to happen.While some are not too keen in using the process, at some point intheir existence, they have at least tried doing so. Giving meaningsto events or objects can sometimes be fun and challenging.

Philosophyand Riches

Human beings are the mostsuperior of all living things on Earth. Human beings are highlyintellectual entities that have body and soul. According toAristotle, “all living things are ‘ensouled’, but this does nothave to imply that they are made up of two distinct and separabletypes of entity, soul, and body” (WP 210). Personally, myconviction about the human body and soul is parallel to Aristotle’sprinciple. The soul is inseparable to the human body. It is the soulthat makes humans live. In the absence of soul, human lives becomemeaningless. It is the soul that enables people to breathe. It is thesoul that dictates logic and reasons.

Aristotle applied the term‘ensoul’ as an analogy to illustrate that “if we consider theeye as a set of material structures, then the form is that in virtueof which the potentialities for vision are actualized” (WP 210). Inthe same way, I believe that how we deal with other people, themanner we conduct ourselves, the way we view things in life, the kindof convictions we have, all the values that humans possess, are alldictated by the human soul. When soul is separated from the humanbody, the body becomes a mere physical thing that is devoid of life.The human becomes an object, something that exists but does not havelife. The sense of fulfillment that we experience each time somethinggood happens in our life, the feeling of sadness that envelope ourwhole being each time something goes wrong, the sense of excitementthat makes us look forward to the next event, all these are driven bythe soul that is entrapped in the human body.

TheGod within Us

Religious faith is needed. Reasonand good intentions are not enough. There must be that faith in theSupreme Being who holds people in the palm of His hands. If indeedhumans came from the Supreme Being, then the Supreme Being will seeto it that we find our way home. According to William Craig, “withoutGod, man and universe are doomed… it is not just immortality manneeds if life is to be ultimately significant he needs God andimmortality… without God, there is no ultimate value” (WP 809). Ibelieve that whatever kind of religion a human being has, when thereis a religion to guide him, man will know how to be morally good. ForBuddhism, all men are subject to the same psychic laws, since thehuman condition is the same for all. However, human beings live underthe illusion of separateness and indestructibility of ego due tohuman greed and pride. It is only when man conquers his greed andpride that he discovers the fundamental truths of life. In theJudaeo-Christian thought, man is the “image of God”. All menbelong to one family. They share the same basic features that makethem human and enable them to know and to love one another. Today theidea of a human nature common to all men is being eroded by thatconcept which suggests human nature to be a blank sheet on whichculture writes its text. While the oneness of human nature is nottotally ignored, it conjures man to be merely the product of socialinteraction so that human nature is nothing more than a reflex ofsocial conditions.

People cannot love what they donot know. But knowing God does not necessarily lead to love of God.One may know someone and still be detached from him. Loving God in areligious way entails being attached to him. Thus, love of God is apersonal response to His presence. It is not a mere emotionalreaction, a sort of physical infatuation or pious sentiment. It isthe submission of our mind and heart and what God is and to what Heis saying to us. Accordingly, we may say that love of God is theinnate tendency in our human nature to find fulfillment in what isgood. Thus, loving God implies our acceptance that just as we findour beginning with God, we shall find our final purpose in the bosomof God.


Cottingham,John.&nbspAnanthology.Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley &amp Sons Ltd),2007. Print.

LuciusAnnaeus Seneca. Moral Epistles. Translated by Richard M. Gummere. TheLoeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1917-25. 3vols.: Volume I.

Discursivenessin Reading

Readingalong with writing are basic skills that highlight literacy. Over acentury ago, a lot of people are not capable of reading. As timeprogresses, reading possesses myriads of advantages. Personally, Ifind reading extremely enjoyable. Reading and writing go together.One cannot write without knowing how to read and vice-versa. They arevaluable skills that must constantly be improved. Most of the time,these skills go unnoticed. Whether it is reading a book or writing apoem, reading and writing boost academic performance. They absorbinformation and heighten leisure. Reading can serve as a gateway fromthe daily grinds in school or at work. When we read a book, we obtainthe message that the book wants to deliver.

InCalifornia public schools, reading is integrated in the Languagesubject. The public schools believe in the importance of havingknowledge in oral and written language in order for effectivecommunication to take place. In Kindergarten, learners start to useEnglish in their speaking and writing activities, when asking, whenspeaking, and when answering questions. The English subject teachesthe young learners to recognize words and use them in coherentsentences when they speak and to be conscious of the right spellingof words through the use of phonetic skills. One of the mostdifficult tasks in teaching Kindergarten is reading. Thus forstruggling learners, public schools in California believe thatlearners who do not obtain success in phonics, phonologicalawareness, as well as skills in word recognition may encounter someacademic difficulties.

Strugglingreaders need added assistance to participate in the lessons and toguarantee success. Some of the instructional support adopted by theschools is the use of tools in evaluating differentiated instruction,flexible grouping, brief instructional sessions, pre-teaching ofskills in phonemic awareness, and a systematic phonics instructionthat targets mastery.