A telecommunications network can be defined as a form of links thatcomprise of a channel where information such as messages can betransmitted from the sender to the receiver. Telecommunicationsnetworks utilizes the aspect of computing and the usetelecommunicating resources that enable the transmission ofinformation from one location to another. It is critical to note thatthis transmission of information is electronic. Telecommunicationshas become as aspect that is inseparable from computers (Peterson &Davie, 2010). It utilizes computers to transmit informationelectronically. The aspect of telecommunication and the use ofcomputers have been seen to add value to the process of transmittinginformation.
Telecommunications network comprises a number of features which areit has terminals, which are used by end users for accessing thenetwork. Terminals can be said to be the starting and the end pointsin a telecommunication network. For instance, a mobile phone can besaid to be a terminal in a telecommunication network. It is alsoimperative to note that the telecommunications network’s keyfeature are the computers (Peterson & Davie, 2010). The computersare responsible for processing the information that is being sent.The information being sent can take various forms such as videos,texts, data, images or telephone calls. The computers are connectedby the network and they facilitate the transmission of theinformation (Antonakos & Mansfield, 2009). The third and mostcritical feature of the telecommunication network is thetelecommunication software. The software is installed in all thecomputers in the network and it is responsible for the control of allactivities that take place within the network. The telecommunicationsnetwork also comprises the telecommunications network links. Theseare similar to terminals where the information being transmittedbetween the sending device and the receiving device are sent through.
The open systems interconnection has been a standard that hasapplied in a majority of telecommunication networks across the world.It determines how messages should be sent between any two points in atelecommunication network. It stipulates seven layers of functionsthat occur at each terminal or end of a communication channel.According to the OSI standards, each layer in has specific functionsin the transmission of messages from one user to the other (Peterson& Davie, 2010). The seventh layer is the application layer wherethe parties in the communication are identified, authenticated andprivacy concerns addressed. The presentation layer is the sixth layerwhere which is part of a computer operating system. This layer, whichis also commonly known as the syntax layer, converts data in acommunication from one format to another form in terms ofpresentation. For instance, converting data into a popup window inthe computer (Zacker, 2010).
The fifth layer is the session layer which is responsible for thesetting up, coordination and termination of data exchanges ordialogues between applications at each terminal. The transport layer,which is the fourth layer, ensures that data has been transmitted.For instance, this layer checks whether data has any error andwhether all data packets have been received. The network layer, whichis the third layer, controls the routing of data. In other words, itensures that data reaches the intended end and that it follows thecorrect direction (Zacker, 2010). Data-link layer is said to befurnishing the exchange protocol management and skills. The lastlayer, layer one, it believed to provide the hardware aspect oftelecommunication networks.
Discuss whether telephone networks and computer networks will remaindistinct in the future.
The telephone networks have been described as an obsolete form ofnetwork for communication. The network is said to be behind time andits extinction is expected in 2018. Critics have argued that thenetwork lacks technicians to repair since nobody is interested in thenetwork. AT&T have also pointed out to the fact that thetelephone networks are hard to find spare parts for since they areobsolete. In other words, the platform is not sustainable in thefuture. The voice quality of the telephone networks is extremely poorand it is therefore viewed as obsolete. There are proposals fromstakeholders to sift all forms of networks to the all-IP networkwhich offers high quality video chatting and high quality voice(Peterson & Davie, 2010). The telephone network will not remaindistinct in the near future. However, it is imperative to note thatit will not be an easy task to eliminate the telephone network andreplace it with al-IP based networks due to the convenience andflexibility it offers.
The computer networks also becoming increasingly rare in a majorityof homes and offices. The growth that has been manifest in thetechnology industry has brought new networking infrastructures suchas Wi-Fi, as well as I-phones, I-pads and tablets. This has been madecomputer networks extremely unnecessary. People are turning towireless networks rather than the wired networks. This is a clearindication that the computer networks might be rendered obsolete infuture (Zacker, 2010). However, it is imperative to note that thenumerous offices use the computer wired networks. It is evident thatthe elimination of these computer networks from the market will takeenormous time, but the trend to shift to wireless networks is on therise.
Describe various network media and how they are changing
A network media is the actual platform through which electricinformation is transmitted through. The main types of network mediahas been twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, andwireless. The twisted pair cable has been largely used by thetelephone networks and the modern Ethernet networks. This form ofnetwork media occurs in two types namely the unshielded twisted pair(UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP). The twisted pair cables cantransmit up to 100 mbps.
The coaxial cable had been popular in the past but its popularityhas been waning in recent times. This is a strong cable, which hasthe advantage of avoiding electrical interference. These form ofnetwork media is normally used to transmit television signals, aswell as to transmit computer data through the Ethernet (Otis, 2010).Due to the fact that the cable is little interfered with byelectricity, it is said to carry more data that the twisted-paircable. It is vital to note that this cable was first used in 1929,but was commercialized in 1941. The twisted-pair cable has beenwidely used in recent times than the coaxial cable.
The fiber optic cable is the latest form of network media which hasrevolutionized the transmission of data. Whereas other forms ofnetwork media use electricity to transmit data, the fiber optic cableuses the light to transmit data. This has the advantage of avoidinginterference from electric noise (Otis, 2010). This form of networkmedia can transmit data over a long distance of approximately 100kilometers.
Explain the differences among LANS, WANS, CANS, and MANS.
LAN, which stand for local area network is a form of network designthat operates within a limited geographical region. It involves theconnection of a number of computers through cables which offer theusers a high bandwidth connectivity. On the other hand, a wide areanetwork or the WAN is a network design that allows users to sendinstant data across the world. This is unlike the LAN, which islimited to a certain geographical region. The internet is a perfectexample of WAN. The MAN or the metropolitan area network serve aspecific region such as a city just as the name suggests. It covers awider area than the LAN, but less than the WAN. It is normallyutilized by organizations with offices in a city. CANs or the campusarea network is more or less like the MAN, but it covers a universityor a campus (Otis, 2010). CANs are mainly for academic purposes.
Describe three (3) ways in which businesses use Internet services andprotocols
Businesses can utilize the internet and protocols such VOIP or voiceover internet protocol in various ways. Businesses can use VoIP tomake low cost calls to clients. Furthermore, a vast majority ofbusinesses have been used VOIP for video conferencing wherebusinesses can hold meetings with people in different locations.Business can also use the internet for storage of data such asthrough the cloud (Zacker, 2010). Lastly, businesses can also use theinternet for marketing such through the social media.
Antonakos, J. L., & Mansfield, K. C. (2009). Computernetworking for LANs to WANs: Hardware, software and security.Clifton Park, N.Y: Cengage Delmar Learning.
Otis, L. (2010). Networking: Communicating with bodies andmachines in the nineteenth century. Ann Arbor: Univ. of MichiganPress.
Peterson, L. L., & Davie, B. S. (2011). Computer networks: Asystems approach. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
Zacker, C. (2001). Networking: The complete reference. NewYork Toronto: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.