Methodology:setting and sample
A. The population
The study population shall comprise of teachers and parents at XXXmiddle school. The school is located within XY district in the stateof BY. The school has a total population of X students. Only oneparent or guardian for each student would be considered instead ofconsidering both parents which is redundant. The number of parents isexpected to be slightly higher than teachers. Only a small number ofteachers will be sampled with the basic requirement being that theyteach in 4th, 5th and 6th grades and have overtwo years of experience in teaching and must also be trained inteaching. The ethnic composition of the population is diverse with amajority of them being Caucasian white. By sex, there is a healthybalance between males and females although there is a likely to be abias towards female middle school teachers. Studies have revealedthat teaching in elementary and secondary schools is a largelyfeminized job (Boyle, n.d.).
B. The samplingmethod purposeful sampling
Purposeful sampling refers to selection of a sample form a populationbased on given characteristics (Norton, 2008). This differs fromsimple random sampling where participants irrespective of anydefining characteristics such as age, location or other key traitsthat can influence the type of data to be collected are randomlyselected. There are various ways of conducting purposeful samplingdepending on the data collection method. Convenience sampling whichidentifies participants based on their simple availability uponmeeting the basic criteria for the study, maximum variation samplingto cover the extreme cases of the sample, criterion sampling orstratified purposeful sampling that seeks out participants who meet acertain criteria (Bryman 2012). This study will rely on stratifiedpurposeful sampling as it will be best placed to enable the researchidentify a relevant sample needed to achieved the set aims of thestudy.
C. The samplesize
There are a number of factors that determine the sample size in anyresearch. They include the type data co be collected, data collectionmethods, the validity/credibility or precision required, populationsize, sampling method, scope of research and sampling technique used(Bryman 2012). This current study plans to use qualitative methodwhere participants will fill out questionnaires to collectdescriptive data. Quantitative data methods are best suited for largesamples and a few variables are assessed. On the other hand,qualitative approach calls for a smaller sample that is studied moreclosely with a relatively larger number of variables being assessed(Norton, 2008). With a sample of 50 participants, there are expectedto be 50 questionnaires to be analyzed based on the responses to thequestions set targeting specific variables.
D. Theeligibility criteria
The eligibility of shortlisted participants will that parents musthave children enrolled in the XX middle school. Teachers must beteaching at least one subject in 4th, 5th and 6th grades at least forthe last one year. All participants must be of sound mind and havesigned the consent form.
E. Thecharacteristic of the selected sample
All participants must be affiliated to XX middle school either ascurrent parents or teachers. All participants must show theirassociation with school and be in the official records of the school.The parents should also be actively involved in the lives of theirchildren especially education-wise.
As a social research that involves human beings, it must be approvedby the school administration, participants and the institutionalreview board. For studies involving humans, the IRB requires thatindividuals are protected from physical and psychological harm. Assuch, participants must provide informed consent to researchersbefore commencement of the research (Norton, 2008).
There are three main risks involved in social research. One is harmas a result of their involvement. Two is damage of professionalrelationships. Third is the privacy and falsification of data (Bryman2012). To prevent any great emotional or psychological harm,participants will be informed about the purposes of the research anduse of the findings. On avoiding societal risks, the researcher placethe research in the relevance of the society by assuring that theresearch and its findings will not be used to harm the society.Furthermore, assurances must be provided to participants that theirprivacy will be protected and that data provided cannot be used forother purposes or disclosed to other parties without their consent(Norton, 2008).
Boyle, E. (n.d.).The feminization of teaching in America. MIT. Retrieved online09.05.14 from
Bryman, A.(2012). Social research methods. New York: Oxford UniversityPress.
Norton, L.(2008). Action research in teaching and learning: a practicalguide to conducting
pedagogicalresearch in universities. New York: Routledge.