List of AnnotatedBibliographies Regarding Hurricane Disasters
DeMaria, M.,DeMaria, R. T., Knaff, J. A., & Molenar, D. (2012) TropicalCyclone Lightning and Rapid Intensity Change. MonthlyWeather Review140:6, 1828-1842. Retrieved from:<http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00236.1>.
Cases of tropical cyclones from thecoastal areas along the Atlantic and North-Eastern Pacific areas fromthe previous years (2005-2010) have been studied and analyzed for apossible relationship regarding incidents of lightning storms andintensity changes occurring over the ocean water. According toDeMaria et. al. (2012), results showed that "the averagelightning density (strikes per unit area and time) decreases withradius from the storm center tropical storms tend to have morelightning than hurricanes intensifying storms tend to have greaterlightning density than weakening cyclones and the lightning densityfor individual cyclones is very episodic." Moreover, cases offrequent lightning formation have enable the tropical cyclones tobecome more rapid and more intensified as the strength and intensityof lighting also became prevalent. Thus, if there are cases oflightning and thunderstorms occurring before the detection ofpossible hurricane disasters, people should expect a much strongerand more heavy rainfall and wind gust that may strike in thelocality, for lightning intensity has a direct relationship with thatof the tropical cyclones. Hence, a careful preparation and riskmanagement must be implemented to prevent further catastrophic impactbrought by tropical cyclones.
This articlelast 2012 extends our knowledge regarding other possible factors thatcan enhance the destructive impact brought by these tropicalcyclones. A research experiment was conducted to determine thevalidity of a theory that states that lightning and thunderstormsaffect the intensity of the tropical cyclones landing at the Atlanticand Northeastern coastline areas. This study was conducted to enablethe scientists to gain more knowledge and information regarding theoutside factors brought by the lightning intensity changes.
Ready.gov (2014). Hurricanes. Retrieved from:<http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes>.
Hurricane disasters are naturally formed along the southern AtlanticOcean, Caribbean Sea, Mexican Gulf, and on the eastern Pacific Ocean.These are kinds of tropical cyclones for which thunderstorms andcounterclockwise circulation of winds can be formed. All areasfollowing the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal locationsfrequently experienced tropical cyclones during the peak months ofmid-August to late October on Atlantic areas and from May to Novemberon the Mexican Gulf coastal areas. Hurricanes pose a catastrophiceffect to coastline areas to several miles inland. It usuallyproduced an average wind gust of 155 miles per hour, and can alsocreate certain cases of storm surges and extensive heavy rainfallalong the affected areas. The most common effects of tropicalcyclones include heavy floods, flying debris along the roads,destructive buildings and structures, heavy rains, etc. More seriousafter-effects of the tropical cyclones include landslides, mudslides,and flash flooding due to excessive and heavy rainfall. From thesedamaging effects brought by tropical cyclone, everyone is encouragedto provide a risk and protection measures for safety purposes.
This article provides scientific information about what and how atropical cyclone can be formed. It also discussed the damagingeffects of a tropical cyclone and also cited prevention andprotection measures against natural disasters like that of thetropical cyclone. This article was written to provide a scientificinquiry about when, what, how, and where do tropical cyclonescommonly occur as well as the extent of how it will affect theinlands, since it is typically formed along the coastal areas ofAtlantic territory and the Mexican Gulf. Every person can havebackground knowledge about the disaster.
Rice, D. (2014). Quiet 2014 hurricane season forecast. USA Today.Retrieved from:<http://www.usatoday.com/story/weather/2014/04/10/colorado-state-hurricane-forecast/7544005/>
For this year, Rice (2014) expected a quiet and a calm Atlantichurricane season for the months of July to November. She noted thataround nine tropical storms will occur, for which only three of themhave the possibility to become hurricanes. This study is generallybased on the previous hurricane forecasts, for which most of them areerroneous and provided wrong calculations and estimates regarding thenumber of hurricanes involved in the years 2012 and 2013. Moreover,among the three possible hurricanes that could struck the Atlanticcoastlines and nearby inlands, only one of them may be considered amajor hurricane, with an approximate category of 3, 4, or 5, and awind speed and gustiness of 111 miles per hour, or even higher thanthe average wind speed. Other notable studies have also beenmentioned, such that the eastern Pacific hurricane season from May toNovember have no significant effect on the U.S. Territory, but canaffect the West Coast of Mexico City.
This article provided a hurricane forecast for the year 2014. Itprovided an approximate number of hurricanes that might enter theU.S. territory as well as its catastrophic level on the coastlinesand in the nearby inlands. Though no one can really provide an exactnumber, strength, and the damaging level of hurricanes that mayaffect our locality, possible warnings and alerts are enough for thepeople to prepare themselves in case these natural disasters mayhappen in the next days, or months to come. It can serve asprecautionary warning in order to make the people ready and beware ofthe possible hurricanes that can struck a part of the U.S. Territory.
Wikipedia (2014). Tropical Cyclone. Retrieved from:<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_cyclone>.
Hurricane has also been defined as a tropical cyclone, for which itis considered a form of storm signal that can be distinguished forits low-pressure system at the center of the cyclone, having a hugeamount of winds and thunderstorms resulting to heavy rainfall allover the scope of the hurricane. It can be usually created in largebodies of water, commonly on seas and oceans, usually on warmweather, by the action of evaporation of water from the ocean source,which formed and re-condensed into clouds, then turn into rainfallafter it has been cooled upon saturation. The hurricane formed in thewater cycle system is due to strong and heavy winds happened as aresult of the Earth`s rotation as air flows inwards towards the axisof rotation of the Earth, thereby creating strong winds that causethe formation of hurricane. Aside from heavy rains and strong winds,hurricanes can also cause a formation of giant waves, generation ofstorm surge alerts, as well as certain cases of tornadoes. Some ofthe major catastrophic effects caused by a tropical cyclone includeinland flooding, drought conditions, massive inland destruction, aswell as climate change, due to differences in the temperate latitudescaused by increase in heat.
The article being discussed here is all about the general backgroundknowledge of what and how a hurricane, or a tropical cyclone is allabout and how it is formed. It discusses about its causes anddevastating effects it may bring to the inland, as well as someinformation on how to cope up before and after the hurricaneincident. This article aims to provide information to all thereaders, especially to the adults and the government officials aswell, to provide them necessary background idea of how tropicalcyclone can provide an impact to the people. It was generally a formof informing the readers about the disaster that it may contribute tothe affected individuals.
Schapiro, R., Chinese, V., Smith, G., and Donohue, P. (2012).Hurricane Sandy: One Year Later. The New York Daily News.Retrieved from: <http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/hurricane-sandy/sandy-1-year-storm-winds-article-1.1495677>.
One of the strongest hurricane disasters in the American history thathad killed thousands of people is the Hurricane Sandy. It was onOctober 29, 2012 that hurricane Sandy has been observed in asatellite image, being described as a terror natural disaster thatwill have a major impact by means of heavy rains, major destructivepower, and strong and heavy wind gusts along the Northern corridorand a section of Atlantic City Boardwalk. For almost a week ofrelentless catastrophic damages inland, billions of structuralbuildings have been destroyed, with hundreds of people died andthousands were transferred and relocated in different neighboringcities along the U.S. Country. One of the most affected cities in theU.S. that had been greatly devastated by the impacts of hurricaneSandy was the New York City, for which majorswaths of the crippled city remained in blackness throughout theweek, public transportation was at a standstill in the flood zones,and several damaged buildings and structures were scattered along theroad.
This article provided an example of the effects of how and what adestructive power of a hurricane can do inland. This news articlecovers the American cities which were devastated and destructed byHurricane Sandy which happened last October 29, 2012. A series ofheavy rains and floods, and strong wind gusts were experienced by theAmericans for almost one week, which had resulted in a massivedestruction of buildings and structures. Many were also injured andkilled by this natural hurricane Sandy. According to Schapiro et. al(2012), hurricane Sandy’sterrifying intensity rewrote the psyche of a city that once believeditself safe from the harrowing harm of big Atlantic storms.