INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY 1
Roleis the expected pattern of behavior of an individual that is sociallyrecognized and places an individual in the context within thesociety. The role is based on the social position that the individualoccupies in the society. Roles are stable despite the individualsoccupying the position (Keirns et al., 2012). Status is just theposition that a person occupies in the social order. A status can beachieved or ascribed. Each status comes with a social role.
InWWZ, Dr. Kwang Jingshu played the role of a doctor to the entirevillage before the onset of the plague. His status was that of adoctor who cured many diseases in the village. The Doctor’s rolechanged to that of a patient when he fell ill.
TheThomas theorem holds that the situation is as real as it isinterpreted. The action of an individual is subjective to theinterpretation of the individual (Keirns et al., 2012).
b.For example, in WWZ, America did not prepare for any water because itwas confident that it had the strength to win. The interpretation ofits lack of any significant attacks made America interpret this as awin on its side.
Bourgeoisieare the owners of capital and they control the means of productionwhile proletariats are those who provide labor to the bourgeoisie(Keirns et al., 2012). The proletariats are the owners of skills andthey provide their skills to the owners of capital at a price
b.the apocalyptic event spread the means of production by making itpossible for people who had skills to access capital and thus, becomemembers of the bourgeoisie. The apocalypse also gave rise to a moneyeconomy, where people with skills now had options for working formoney and they could afford a good life. The ownership of capitalstopped being through inheritance.
Socializationis a process where an individual learns the cultural practices, normsand values of his social group. Socialization gives a person hissocial identity. Anticipatory socialization is a socializationprocess where an individual, who does not belong to a certain socialgroup, learns the values, norms and habits of a group that he wishesto join (Keirns et al., 2012). The intention is to facilitate asmooth entry into the group. Resocialization is the process by whicha person’s personality is changed systematically by controlling hisenvironment (Keirns et al., 2012). It starts by eroding the existingpersonality and then replacing it with the desired personalitythrough a controlled environment.
Thepeople in the Chinese village in WWZ, where the plague originated hadbeen socialized to understand that any disease that could not becured through traditional medicine was a curse. Gerry was socializedthrough anticipation before he left for Jerusalem so that he couldfit in the society. Gerry and his family were also resocialized whenthey took refuge in the army barracks so that they could fit in thearmy way of life.
Moraldevelopment is the process by which people gain values and use themto behave responsibly in relation to the society. Before theapocalyptic development, moral development may have been the processby which people acquired values from the social group that theybelonged to, and had no relationship with other societies. After theapocalyptic development, it involves gaining and using moral valuesthat are universally acceptable in one’s society and othersocieties.
Conformityis the process by which a person is socially influenced by anothersociety so as to fit in that society. A person changes his behaviors,attitudes and beliefs and adopts those that are acceptable to the newgroup (Keirns et al., 2012).
b.Gerry had to conform to the social norms of the people of Jerusalemwhen he went to look for medicine for the plague so that he could beacceptable to the people. This was important so that he would gainaccess to the fenced area and gain the trust of the people ofJerusalem. Additionally, Gerry and his family had to conform to thesocial norms of the military when they took refuge in the barracks.This was meant to make them settle in the barracks comfortably andbecome part of the military.
In-groups define the social group by which a person identifies with,psychologically. An in- group gives a person a social identity basedon its norms and values. An out- group is a group by which a persondoes not psychologically identify with (Keirns et al., 2012). Theperson does not know the social norms of the out- group because hedoes not identify with it.
b.The people of the Chinese village where the plague originated did notdisclose their knowledge of medicine to the people they did not know.They also did not trust any offers of help from people who did notbelong to their group. When Gerry visited South Korea, he had a hardtime settling in because he belonged to an out- group.
Abureaucracy is an organization that is made up of many divisions thatare managed by different people. For example, in WWZ, the militarybarracks in America was a bureaucracy. McDonaldization is the processby which systems become highly efficient through control and they arethus, highly predictable. For example, in WWZ, the American army washighly McDonalized and that is why they were easily affected by theplague. Irrationality of rationality refers to the process by whichsystems alienate human reasoning. The systems are highly systematicand predictable and they alienate human reasoning. For example, inWWZ, the Army barracks were highly systematized and they alienatedhuman input and reasoning.
Keirns,N, et al. (2012). . New York: Chegg.