INFLUENZA A VIRUS JOURNAL ANALYSIS 6
InfluenzaA Virus Journal Analysis
InfluenzaA VirusJournal Analysis
Thejournal under review investigates the Influenza A virus. In theirinvestigation, a group of researchers led by Miriam experiment theeffect of Influenza A virus on the mucus of the host through thecleaving of sialic acids with neuraminidase. In the investigation,the researchers already know the effects of Influenca A, on the hostand hypothesis the cleaving of the salic acids by the virus usingneuraminidase. The inhibition of the NA by oseltamivir results in thesuppression of the viral release and viral infection of humanepithelial cells that are cultured.
Throughthe investigation, the role that the NA plays in the process of viralexit is established by the experiment. The NA is responsible for therelease of the budding virions. This happens through the cleaving ofSias from the glycoconjugates on the progeny virions and the infectedcells (Cohenet al, 2013).However, the experiment does not clearly illustrate or explain thefull role of NA in the process of viral entry. The process involvesthe host respiratory epithelia using natural mechanisms to protectitself from the viral attack. The epithelial secretes a protectivemucus that forms a layer over the cells of the host. This is the mainway that the host protects itself from an entry of the virus into thecells.
Thelayer that is formed is rich in sialylated glycoproteins. Thecomponents of the rich layer are meant to inhibit the entry of thevirus into the host cells. This takes place by mimicking sialylatedreceptors that are present on the surface of the host’s cell. Theinvestigators note that experts suggest that the NA allows thepenetration of the influence virus due to the cleaving of thesesialylated decoys (Cohenet al, 2013).However, the exact way and a mechanism through which the decoys areable to mimic the Sialyted receptors is not yet established.Moreover. The investigators do not establish the factors that favorthe mimicking of the receptors to for the harmful sialylated decoys.
Theinvestigation tested the interaction of the IAV with a sample ofmucus. The mucus was secreted from the human tissues located in thetrachea and human salivary mucins. The investigation involvedanalysis of the protective properties of the mucus using the MDCKcells that were coated with purified PSM and HSM content. To provetheir experiment, the investigators used Oseltamivir to inhibit theactivities of the NA. In addition, the quantification of theactivities of then a was done using the fluorescent reportersubstrate.
Theinvestigation found out that the IAV binds to the layer of mucus in amanner that is independent of the Sia. They also found out that theinhibition of the IAV infection by the HSM depended on the dose ofthe sia. In addition, the investigators also found out that the PSMdid not have the ability of inhibiting the infection of the cellunderlying it. Moreover, the investigation found out that HSMinhibits the cleavage of the NA on the substrate used. It was alsofound out that the human IAV cleaves the Sias effectively from theHSM. However, the Human IAV does not cleave the Sias from the PSM.Moreover, the human IAV binds to the HSM effectively but does noteffectively bind to the PSM.
TheIAV interacts with the mucus-coated beads as well as the human mucus.This means that to inhibit the infection of the IAV by the sialytedhuman mucus depends on the dose used. In addition, the infectionprocess is enhanced oseltamivir effectively inhibits the NA.Therefore, the sialylated decoys are cleaved by the NA in the primacystages of the process of the infection. This means that there is apossibility for an avenue towards the development of a drug. This canbe successfully done by understanding the interactions of the IAVwith the host Mucins. Through such an understanding, there is apossibility of developing a drug.
Fromthe publication, there is a lot of information that can be attributedto the investigation on the virus. However, the investigations stillleaves some questions that relate to the virus and the infection ofthe human host. The investigation still leaves the concern on how theNA facilitates the entry of the virus into the host’s cell for theinfection to take place. This could be an important part of the investigation that could lead to further developments in thedevelopment of a drug for the virus. It is known that the NA is aprotein that plays a crucial role in the release of the progenyvirions as well as in their spread.
Thepublication also leaves out a question of whether there is a betterway of investigating the role of the NA in the entry of the influenzavirus. The role of the NA is critical in the investigation processand should have been explored by the publication in a deeper manner.This means that the investigators could have included a method thatcould explore the exact role played by the NA, leading to theinfection of by the influenza. This could be done by using humanrespiratory epitheliumcultures that are infected by the influenzaviruses. Then these cultures should be introduced into the NAinhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate. After such an investigation, somecells could be found infected. However, those applied drug on themcould not be infected. This indicates that the NA facilitates theentry of the influenza viruses and subsequent infection.
Anotherquestion is about what assumptions did the investigators make in theinvestigation and in the conclusion that the NA plays a role in theentry of the virus into the host cells. This is because theconclusion leaves a gap that has not yet been established both byexpert knowledge or by the findings of the investigation. It is knownof an assumption made that NA promotes the targeting of the cells bythe virus in the respiratory system by mucus generation. Theproduction of the mucus is what is assumed to facilitate the viruscells to penetrate the cell.
Inconclusion, this investigation aims at exploring the penetration ofthe influenza A virus into the host mucus. This penetration involvesthe cleaving of saialic acids with the NA. The investigation alsoexplores the role of the NA in the penetration process and theperceived facilitation of the entry of the virus with the new.However, the investigation leaves questions on the exact role of theNA in aiding the virus to enter the cell. The investigation issuccessful an relevant since the experimenters conclude a possibilityof the development of a drug that can inhibit the process.
Cohenet al, (2013). Influenza A penetrates host mucus by cleaving sialicacids with