1I.The October Revolution
Therewas a series of revolutions that happened in Russia in the year 1917.The collective term for that series of revolutions was coined as theRussian Revolution that took apart the Tsarist autocracy and then ledto the formation of the Russian SFSR1Vladimir Lenin, who based his principles on the ideas of Karl Marxknown as Marxism-Leninism, led the October Revolution. The date whenthe revolution started is November 7, 1917 but Russia by that timewas still using the Julian Calendar so the date with respect to ourmodern reference is October 25 1917. Communism started to spread outin the 20thcentury because of the October Revolution. Vlademir Lenin led theBolshevik party to resist against the useless Provisional Governmentof Russia. Through the revolution, the ineffective provisionalparliamentary government in Petrograd was replaced by a governmentled by Soviets, local government councils who were elected by groupsof peasants and workers1.
TheBolshevik party led many Russian peasants and workers to revolt underthe slogan of “All power to the Soviets” and make a new system ofgovernment. The new government wanted to construct a Socialistsociety to be at peace with other conflicting nations. However, onlyGermany agreed to a peace treaty which is the Treaty of Brest-Litovskthat ended Russia’s participation in World War I2.Lenin successfully overthrew the provisional government3.However, the forces of the liberals and the monarchist connived to goagainst the forces ofLenin.Later on the Russian Civil War was known when the White Armyimmediately went war against the Bolshevik and Lenin’s Red Army ina string of battles.
II.The Russian Civil War and the New Economic Policy2
TheCivil War of Russia started out in 1918 after the October revolution.This war was waged between the Red Army (also known as the Reds),which consisted of the Bolshevik Army led by Vladimir Lenin, and theWhites,which consisted of cossacks and army officers as well as politicalgroups that were against the government of Soviets1.The White army or the whiteswere backed up by many nations like Great Britain, Japan, France andUSA. The redson the other hand were able to get internal support, which was provento be more effective than the back up of the whites.Although the whiteswereprovided substantial military support by the Allied nations, the redswerestill able to win the war against them2.
Afterthe Russian Civil War which lasted from 1917 to 1922, the NewEconomic Policy was proposed by Vladimir Lenin, which he called as“state capitalism” in Soviet Russia3.The NEP portrayed an economic policy that was more capitalist innature. During the period of War communism, the industry’s completeindustrialization was completely revoked and a new system of mixedeconomy was introduced that allowed private sectors and individualsto have small enterprises and properties4yet the state still has the control over banks, foreign trade andmany large industriesAlso, the New Economic Policy of Lenin abolishedthe forced grain requisition system of Russia and introduced a newsystem of taxing to farmers which was payable by agriculturalproducts 3.
WarCommunism in Russia brought its economy to an unfortunate state.Vladimir Lenin’s response to this was the New Economic Policy,which was derived from the Czarist Economic Policy but more improvedand developed. The NEP was implemented to bring capitalism to theSoviet Russia. The NEP succeeded in allowing the economy of Russia toprosper. Regrettably, the NEP of Soviet Russia was short livedbecause it was abandoned shortly after the death of Lenin in 1924.This was both good and bad for the Soviet state.TheNew Economic Policy really improved the economy of Russia. However,that improvement was only applicable during the Second World Warbecause the Soviet state still needed more progress back then to beable to continue the grow of their state’s economy1.
III.Vladimir Lenin’s Health Declination
Fightingthe civil war, leading the revolution and governing the state had anegative impact on Lenin’s health. Many assassination attempts wereoccurred and the wounds from those attempts worsened his health evenmore. For example, He kept a bullet stuck in his neck until a Germansurgeon successfully removed it on April 24, 19222.
Inaddition to that, he worked in the Red Army from fourteen to sixteenhours daily. He was really busy because of doing too many heavyroutines each day. Activities that he did 4everydayincluded the arrangements of fuel transportation to Ivano-Vosnesenskandstipulated the clothings of the miners. In addition to that, he alsohelped the engineers in resolving the problems involving theconstruction of dynamo as well as the feasibility study of using windturbines as a source for electrification of many villages. Whiledrafting many documents about agreements on trade and orders, Leninalso participated in giving out rations, pamphlets and edited booksto the people of the state. During peat applications, he was alsoinvolved in those hearings. He also assisted in improving the factoryof BoviLessner whilebeing an adviser to various functioning parties. He was able to doall of these things in a continuous basis almost every time1.
Leninexperienced three strokes before he finally died. Before his firststroke, physicians found evidences of pathology which was neithernervous nor organic. His first stroke happened when he was about toreturn to Saint Petersburg in May 1922 which made him incapable tospeak for many weeks and made him almost unable to move the rightside of his body. He was able to partially recover by June and hecontinued doing his work in August. His second stroke happened inDecember 1922 that made his right side partly immobile. It was inMarch 1923 when his third stroke attack that made him mute and bedridden until he died2.Leninhad no confidence in who would take his place after he died..
IV.Vladimir Lenin’s Testament
AfterLenin suffered his first stroke, He uttered several government papersto his wife. One of those papers was Lenin’s Testament. Leninwanted to change the structure of the Soviet government and itscouncils including the removal of Joseph Stalin in his position asthe General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party’s CentralCommittee. Lenin wanted his testament to be read out loud at theCommunist Party of the Soviet Union’s XII Party Congress in April1923.Lenin’s testament was kept by his wife, hoping that he wouldrecover but sadly, he died not too long after his third stroke so hiswife gave the testament to the Central Committee Secretariat of theCommunist Party and she also asked for them to made the documentavailable in the XIII Party Congress in 19241.
Accordingto Lenin’s testament, he had shown doubts about the ruling of thetroika or the triumvirate of Joseph Stalin, Grigory Zinoview and LevKamenev. The troika tried suppressing the reading of the testamentbecause they knew that the testament is against them, their allyNikolai Bukharin as well as to their opponent Leon Trotsky and GeorgyPyatakov1.
V.The Bid to Succeed Lenin
Alsoafter Lenin’s first stroke attack, members of the party startedfight for power especislly Stalin. Among the people who were expectedto be next in line to Lenin after he dies were Stalin and Trotsky andthey were known as the rivals as successor of Lenin2.5
Ayear after Lenin’s death marked the start of the rise of power ofStalin. He was among the seven members of the Politburo, a group ofpeople that provided continuous and strong leadership to Russia(Encyclopedia Brittanica Online n.date, n.page). Other people in thePolitburo were Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Nikolai Bukharin, AlexeiRykov and Mikhail Tomsky1.
Stalinmade some personal twist on the orthodoxy of Marx that he coined as“Socialism in One Country.” This principle of Stalin argued thatthe success of practicing Marxism in Russia was not applicable to aglobal Communist Revolution that his fellow leaders believed to starton taking the world any moment. According to Stalin, the worldwidefall of capitalism would be achieved eventually, but for the timebeing, he said that it is necessary first to form and build asuccessful Soviet Union. The supporters of Trotsky strongly opposedthe said viewpoints of Stalin26.Trotsky was far more popular than Stalin because Trotsky was a goodorator that was able to maintain a good presence in foreign affairsand he was even viewed as the successor of Lenin. However, whatneither Trotsky nor Lenin failed to do that Stalin was able to do isthat he was able to build loyalty inside the Communist Party. Thatloyalty served as a key factor in his future takeover of power.
Leninhas always seen Stalin to have a hunger in power. That is why hetried to form an alliance with Trotsky and Lenin hoped that he couldremove Stalin from his seat and find another replacement for him.This added more to the hate fire of Stalin towards Trotsky.Unfortunately, Lenin died before he was able to remove Stalin fromthe leadership and Stalin, on the other hand, was able to form analliance with Lev Kamenev and Gregory Zinoviev against Trotsky3.Stalin successfully removed Trotsky as the Commissioner of War firstthen in the year 1926, Trotsky was removed from the Poltiburo17.
Stalinwas a highly confident guy that is why he treated Trotsky’scapabilities of defeating him as futile. Trotsky’s ideas were aboutthe world revolution especially about the global spread of communismwhich is necessary so that it will not be ignored by the people andbe replaced by capitalism. Those ideas were directly against theprinciples of Stalin. Because of their conflicting principles, theiralliances in the triumvirate got weaken. Kamenev and Zinoviev broketheir alliances with Stalin because they supported the ideology ofTrotsky and they also felt that they should not trust Stalin becausethey observed his plans of removing Trotsky in the leadership.Kamenev and Zinoviev’s major action which shown their side againstStalin was when they did not back up Stalin’s ideas and directlyattacking his ideas as well1.
Duringthe 14thParty Conference of April 1925, Bukharin who was another member ofthe Politburo, gave a speech regarding the enrichment of the farmersthat had the aim of reducing the burden of tax to the peasants.Stalin backed up Bukharin’s idea that had caused the leadership ofthe triumvirate to be divided once again. Trotsky had a delayedproject because Bukharin’s project which was said in his speech gotprioritized first. Aside from Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev were theprimary people who were against to this new taxing system proposed byBukharin. According to them, the new tax concession would only bebeneficial to the richer peasants or also called as the kulaksand not to the poorer ones. Since the leadership already had thepro-kulak deviation in the party, Zinoviev formed the Leningrad PartyOrganization thatmadethe leadership more parted from one another. Zinoviev formed theorganization with the sole purpose of mounting assaults with regardsto the leadership of Bukharin. Since Bukharin was backed up byStalin, the 14thParty Congress favored Bukharin. This is one of the signs of Stalin’striumph against the Left opposition. The Left opposition lost andthey were not able to stop Stalin’s administration1.8
Trotskyused to be on Bukharin and Stalin’s side until when the projectthat he was doing was delayed indefinitely. He thought that theindustry of the state was being surrendered in exchange of privateagriculture. Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinonev came together to do acampaign against the new taxing system. Because of their series ofrallies, they were expelled from the Politburo during the 15thParty Conference in October 1926. Zinoviev being more acquainted tothe method was able to resist Stalin with some skill. It took anotheryear for the opposition to be finally beaten and expelled from theParty at the 15thParty Congress1.
Thealliance of Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky along with their supporterswas made and was later known as the United Opposition. The oppositionwas not strong enough to defeat the Alliance of Stalin. Their defeatbrought the loss of Kamenev’s position in the party conference.Kamenev stayed on as the Opposition’s chief spokesperson andembodied his position and represented it during the 15thParty Congress after his expulsion from the Central Committee.Kamenev used the Congress in order to have a speech about appealingto have some reconciliation with the leaders. He was howeverinterrupted many times by Bukharin, Ryutin and Kaganovich who werehis opponents that made his reconciliation attempts to be recognizedunsuccessful19.
AlthoughZivoviev and Kamenev tried to take back their positions by submittingmultiple open letters about acknowledging their mistakes, they werenot able to get reclaim their positions. Instead, they were given midlevel positions under the bureaucracy of the Soviet. Eventuallythough, they were once again expelled from the Communist Partybecause they failed to inform about opposition members. Then, again,they got readmitted after recognizing their mistakes. Nevertheless,Kamenev and Zinoviev were arrested and got expelled again because ofthe murder of Sergei Kirov. Also arrested were some old members ofthe Bolsheviks. They were forced to admit “moral complicity” andwere tried on 1935 regarding the assassination of Kirov. Kamenev wassentenced to five years of imprisonment while Zivoviev was sentencedto ten years of being in jail. They were put on trial againregarding the formation of a terrorist organization that not onlytried to assassinate Kirov but also attempted to kill Stalin as well.Old Bolsheviks admitted the hideous crimes and were found guilty.Kamenev was also found guilty and he was shot on August 19362.
JosephStalin was a very outspoken supporter of Bukharin’s principles andideals. But it was only a front to conceal his real scheme which wasto remove all of the people in the position that could threaten hispower. Like previously stated before, Lev Kamenev, Grigory Zinovievand Leon Trotsky were among those people whom he successfully got ridoff by accusations that they created discontinuity and chaos in theirParty. Bukharin learned that Stalin’s scheme was just a plot sothat there would be a conflict between the political groups whichwill make them destroy each other eventually in the future, leavingStalin as the only leader. Stalin’s actions made Bukkharin todeclare that Stalin is an intriguer who is unprincipled and alsosubordinates everyone and everything to suffice his appetite forpower. He also said that Stalin would change his stories at anymoment if he wanted to get rid of someone1.
Itwas not too soon until Bukharin also fell as a victim to the schemeand tactics of Stalin. He was condemned in 1929 as the head of thefaction called “Right Deviation.” Stalin found the faction as agroup that was harmful to socialism’s construction. Because ofthat, Bukharin was removed from his positions but retained his minorposts like the Ministry of the Heavy Machinery Equipment and one ofthe publishers of a magazine that talked about technicalmodernization. When the trials were undergoing regarding the plot oftreasons to Kamenev, Zinoviev and their collaborators, they wereforced by the prosecutors to make confessions that will includeBukharin’s plot in overthrowing the government. Those chargesagainst Bukharin were dropped for a while until January 1937 where hewas accused of treason again. He went on a hunger strike afterfinding out about the accusation and spent his remaining life in theprison until he was sentenced to death on March 1938110His death officially made Stalin the sole leader of the state.
VI.Evolution of the Soviet State Structure
TheSecond Congress of Soviets paved the way for the Soviet government toget started. The Congress happened in Petrograd about the time whenthe October Revolution was about to happened. It was also the timewhen Trotsky famously hypothesized that they will be consigning tothe “garbage can of history.” Before the day of October 26 came,the leftists and the Bolsheviks were able to get a slim votingmajority in the Soviet Congress. This made Lenin and his contingentshave control of to the Soviets completely. They shaped the revolutionthrough concealing the true face of Bolshevism by wearing the popularSoviet Revolution’s mask111.
Whenthe provisional government was defeated and though Lenin was not yetelected as the leader of the Congress, he offered a resolution tohave a ceasefire on both parties. Along with his resolution is thetransferring to peasants their lands, the production controlhandlings to be given to the labourers, the quick convocation andelection of the Constituent Assembly, increasing the supply of breadsto other cities, and the nationalist and ethnic group determinationin Russia. There were two decrees that were very favourable to thepeople of Russia by that time. First is the Decree on land thatremoved the private ownerships of the land and then giving thecontrol of it to the state and the people. This decree encouragedmore peasants to be involved in the revolution. The second is theDecree on Peace that had the goal of the new government to seek peaceimmediately with Germany while allowing no loss to the Russian landnor will people and no payments be made regarding the indemnities orreparations1.
Alsoafter the October revolution, the formation of the executivecommittee that was called Sovnarkomwhich is the compressed name for SovietNarodnyk Kommissarovwhich has the English translation of Soviet People’s Commissars wasmade. The executive committee or Sovnarkomwas an effective cabinet of ministers formed by the Bolsheviks thatalso avoided the use of Bourgeois-sounding terms. The first committeewhich was formed in November 1917 had 17 various commissars who weregiven different responsibilities. One of the commissars here wasJoseph Stalin1.12
Beforethe Civil War ends, Joseph Stalin was the Commissar of Nationalities.He proposed substitute of the existing federation of republics withthe Union of Socialist Soviet Republics or also called as the USSR.Through this, the war, the foreign policy, trades, finance, economy,food and labour will be under the control of Moscow. Aside from beingthe Commissar of Nationalities, he was also the Commissar of theInspectorate of Peasants and Workers to free every branch of civilservice from corruption and inefficiency. Stalin never did thecommissar’s goal but it gave him a control over a large number ofbureaucrats that then gave him the control of almost the entiregovernment’s machinery. Vladimir Lenin tried to oppose Stalin’sactions but he was too late. Stalin already secured a circle ofofficials who were loyal to him while he continuously controlled thestate’s affairs2.
Withhim being the general secretary of the Central Committee in 1922, heslowly gained power and it got stronger with the untimely demise ofLenin in 1924. He was able to expand his role’s function and wasable to remove and eliminate all the people that opposed him. Hebecame the undisputed leader of the Soviet Union and remained as thegeneral secretary until the position’s abolition in 19521.13
VII.The Role of Agency and Structure to the Outcomes of the Revolution
Stalinwas appointed as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of theSoviet Union in 1922 with the primary reason that nobody wanted theposition and no one in the leading communists except Stalin knew howmuch power one could get by being in the position. Stalinwholeheartedly accepted the position and other leaders of thecommunist actually supported him. Lenin chose Stalin because atfirst, Stalin had been a loyal supporter of Lenin’s policies.Others also treated that particular position as just nothing morethan the “mouthpiece” of Lenin. Medvedved also argued that Stalinwas the least famous of all people in the Politburo. More popularfigures were Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev and Bukharin. Stalin was evena poor speaker in public and the people never really seen or heardStalin during the highlights of the Civil War of Russia2.
Bythe time that Lenin was trying to recover from his state when he hadstroke and was immobilized, Stalin used that opportunity to maximizehis powers as the General Secretary of the Soviet. Through thatposition, he was permitted to expel many party members with“unsatisfactory” performance. Through the removal of thosemembers of the party, he was also able to expel Leon Trotsky’ssupporters who was considered as the main antagonist of his life ingetting the power and the leadership that he wanted. He alsoappointed multiple persons to the most important positions in theSoviet1.14This was not foreseen by Lenin to happen that is why when he wrotehis testament before he died, he wanted to get rid of Stalin in theposition where he himself appointed him to.
Agencyand structure both played their respective roles in the process ofRussian Revolution. Many arguments were made whether what of the twoconcepts was able to make greater impact that made Stalin achieve hispower. According to Seblin, agency was better than structure duringthe revolutionary process of Russia. He added that agents, theirmanufactured world, and their created culture should be taken asimportant points when studying revolution. For Seblin, the actionsand thoughts of people which are under agency are considered as thelink mediating structural conditions and social outcomes. Structuralconditions to him do not totally dictate the things that a personshould do but instead place limits to the actions of people thatminimizes the set of possibilities of certain outcomes. Structuresmay bring violent uprisings against the government or anyone inauthority but structures do not give explanations how a person or aparticular groups act, what are the other options that they shouldpursue, nor the possibilities that they may realize. Two importantpoints are leaders and population that discern in the process ofrevolution. Leaders organize the population and articulate themission and vision of their beliefs while the population on the otherhand, determine the speed and the range of the revolutionary processand usually change or shape their leaders with accordance with theirreality2.
Referringto the use of agency to the advantage of Stalin, he used his greatpolitical skill in order to strengthen his power. He also used hiswisdom in order to successfully eliminate all of his politicalopponents. He was able to make a strategy and was able to pull it offsmoothly that shown his great ability to strategize schemes in orderfor him to win and be able to take the leadership after Lenin’sdeath.
However,some sociologist find structure as the main factor of Stalin for hispower. Skocpol said that structures made Stalin achieve his power. Hecited that politically powerful classes who have their own lands werethe people who achieved immunity or resistance to the bureaucrats ofthe State. Marx’s conflict theory of revolution also seems to beignored or not given that much of attention. New changed andtransformed state administrative, councils, and staffs should beestablished in order for the revolution to be consolidated to changethe place of the previous regimen. Subsequently, different politicalleadership that include cliques in bureaucratic and military as wellas other parties showed the importance of an revolutionized stateorganizations in the revolutionary process. If the saidrevolutionized state organization can organize multiple numbers ofresources to be used to some extend that are independent from theclass interest which is already existing, it would make sense for therevolutions to create the possibilities and potentials for thedevelopment of the national economy that will result to a morecentralized, powerful, and autonomous state organization1.15
Scopcoland Timberber both agreed that it is the structure and not the agencythat can be the most important factor during a revolution. Thestructure of their state back then needed a General Secretary andthough no one at first knew the power that is achievable for theperson who will be taking it except Stalin, he proved them wrong bygetting the said position and use it to his advantage in order toreceive commodities or in the case of Joseph Stalin, get the powerthat he wanted.
Thoughthe two factors are both important, in Stalin’s case it is thestructure that constrained agency in the Russian Revolution startingfrom the appointment of Stalin as the General Secretary up until tohis exit to the government. It is true that Stalin had a veryimpressive political skill, but his political skills would not mattera lot if he had not been appointed to his position. It was hisposition in the Soviet that made him at par with other leaders in theCongress and be able to practice his great political skills andcommence his schemes and strategies in removing people who are notfavourable to his perception. Though both agency and structure canhone a great leader, it was the structural condition that is moreapplicable in Stalin’s bid to succeed Lenin and achieve greaterpower and the leadership position that he so much yearned for.
V. Lerner, Y. Finkelstein and E. Witztum. "The enigma of Lenin`s (1870–1924) malady." European Journal of Neurology, 2004: 371-376.
Acton, Edward, Vladimir Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg. A Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921. 1997.
Big Soviet Encyclopedia, third edition. Civil War and military intervention in Russia 1918–20.
Carr, Edward Hallett. The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1923 Volume One. New York: N.Y.: W.W.Norton and Company, 1978.
Deutscher, Isaac. Stalin: A Political Biography (Galaxy Books) . Oxford University Press, 1967.
Devlin, Robert, and Jackson, George, eds. Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor Anthony Esler. Revolution and Civil War in Russia. Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Figes, Orlando. A People`s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Gellately, Robert. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007.
Kenez, Peter. A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kreis, Steven. The History Guide. http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture7.html (accessed May 4, 2014).
Medvedved, R. Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism. Columbia University Press, 1990.
Parrish, Michael. The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
Pipes, Richard. The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive. Yale: Yale University Press, 1996.
Riasanovsky, Nichlas V. A History of Russia (7th ed.). Oxford University Press, 2005.
Seblin. Agency and Culture in Revolutions.
Siegelbaum, Lewis H. Soviet State and Society Between Revolutions, 1918–1929. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Skocpol, Theda & Trimberger, Ellen. Revolution:A Structural Analysis.
"The New Cambridge Modern History, Volume XII."
The New York Times. "Lenin under the Knife. – Surgeon Extracts a Bullet Which Troubled Him for Three Years." April 26, 1922.
Volkogonov, Dmitriy. Triumph and Tragedy – I. V. Stalin : A Political Portrait. Moscow: Новости Publications, 1989.
Wheatcroft, S. G. "Soviet Industrialization Reconsidered: Some Preliminary Conclusions about Economic Development between 1926 and 1941." Economic History Review, 1986.
21 Riasanovsky, Nichlas V. A History of Russia (7th ed.). Oxford University Press, 2005.
2 Big Soviet Encyclopedia, third edition. Civil War and military intervention in Russia 1918–20.
3 Kenez, Peter. A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 48-53
4 Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor Anthony Esler. Revolution and Civil War in Russia. Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall.
31 Kenez, Peter. A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 48-53
2 The New York Times. "Lenin under the Knife. – Surgeon Extracts a Bullet Which Troubled Him for Three Years." April 26, 1922.
41 Volkogonov, Dmitriy. Triumph and Tragedy – I. V. Stalin : A Political Portrait. Moscow: Новости Publications, 1989. pp 114
2 Acton, Edward, Vladimir Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg. A Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921. 1997.
51 "The New Cambridge Modern History, Volume XII." pp 453
2 Pipes, Richard. The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive. Yale: Yale University Press, 1996. pp 152-154
61 Pipes, Richard. The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive. Yale: Yale University Press, 1996. Pp 152-154
2Gellately, Robert. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007.pp 57
3 Devlin, Robert, and Jackson, George, eds. Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
71 Devlin, Robert, and Jackson, George, eds. Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
81 V. Lerner, Y. Finkelstein and E. Witztum. "The enigma of Lenin`s (1870–1924) malady." European Journal of Neurology, 2004: pp 371-376.
91 Siegelbaum, Lewis H. Soviet State and Society Between Revolutions, 1918–1929. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. pp 189-190
2 Parrish, Michael. The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996. pp 69
101 Kenez, Peter. A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
111 Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008 pp 60-61.
121 Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. pp 60
2 Wheatcroft, S. G. "Soviet Industrialization Reconsidered: Some Preliminary Conclusions about Economic Development between 1926 and 1941." Economic History Review, 1986. pp 30-32
131 Kreis, Steven. The History Guide. http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture7.html (accessed May 4, 2014).
2 Medvedved, R. Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism. Columbia University Press, 1990.
141 Deutscher, Isaac. Stalin: A Political Biography (Galaxy Books) . Oxford University Press, 1967.
2 Seblin. Agency and Culture in Revolutions. pp 78-79
151 Skocpol, Theda & Trimberger, Ellen. Revolution:A Structural Analysis.pp 66-67
1 Figes, Orlando. A People`s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924. pp 370
2 Acton, Edward, Vladimir Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg. A Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921. 1997 pp 27-32
3 Carr, Edward Hallett. The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1923 Volume One. New York: N.Y.: W.W.Norton and Company, 1978.