HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 4
SoftHRM is ethical while hard HRM is not ethical. Hard HRM depictsemployees as a major resource for managers’ exploitation. It adoptsa utilitarian approach where the ethics of actions are determined byconsequences. Thus, the employer-worker correlation is an economicexchange to be ended when no longer needed. Contrary, soft HRMperceives workers as means and not objects. It borrows adeontological view where employers should treat workers as rationalbeings. Hence, emphasizing on a positive employer-employeecorrelation founded on mutual trust, advanced via employeeinvolvement in company decision-making, empowerment and a stakeholderapproach. Using CSR it is possible to understand why soft HRM isethical while hard HRM is not ethical. CSR refers to treating anorganization’s stakeholders ethically. CSR further places emphasison employees as major stakeholders. The stakeholder theory informs onethical HRM by noting that managers ought to act in the interest ofstakeholders while involving them in making decisions. The theorysupposes that organizations should concentrate on issues beyondprofit maximization, since the needs of shareholders cannot be metwithout gratifying to some extreme the needs of differentstakeholders. Shareholder theory informs on unethical HRM. The theorysupports organization’s role as profit making. This means thatorganizations focus on satisfying shareholder’s with minimal focuson the needs of employee needs as stakeholders.
Organizationalobjectives and satisfaction of individual employee needs are goalsthat conflict. HRM has an important function of ensuringorganizational objectives, which is hard HRM, are met. At the sametime soft HRM insists that while meeting the objectives, individualemployee needs are not to be foregone. Stakeholder theory is foundedon two principles. One is corporate effects, which notes that theorganization and its managers are accountable for the impacts oftheir deeds on others. The rule consciously draws from theutilitarian view. Utilitarian theories add that moral significance isvalidated by their aftermaths. It is devote to the increase of goodand reduction of evil. Second is corporate rights principle statingthat organizations should not impede the legitimate freedoms ofothers. It draws from deontological theory founded on the respect forindividuals rule that employees should be handled as ends, not means.The principles demonstrates that there exists a conflict amidemployers and employees in meeting organization’s objectives, hardHRM and satisfying employee needs, soft HRM. This is becauseemployers and workers are possible to have contradictory goals thus,the possibility of conflict amid the parties.
Electronicsurveillance is both a hard and soft type of HRM practice. Hardbecause it focuses on the management of workers for maximum returnthrough observing how they act while at work. Soft because itaddresses the issue of employee safety thus, addressing their needsand ensuring performance is enhanced. The practice is more notable ina transactional employment relationship. This is because expectationsamid workers and employers concentrate on a particular economicexchange. Hence, the employer may use electronic surveillance tomonitor the effectiveness of the employee. Ethical issues emergingfrom surveillance include an employee’s freedom to privacy,autonomy and determining their individual work rate. Other ethicalissues include determining the main beneficiaries, and extent towhich employers are free to impinge on individual worker rights. Thepractice cannot be ethically justified because it raises seriousethical issues. The deontological view notes that actions pursued dueto self-interest are not ethical. Employers use electronicsurveillance to meet individual interest of monitoring theeffectiveness of employees raising issues as to the extreme workersare treated as rational beings. Based on the utilitarian view on thegreatest level of good and least amount of bad, it is impossible toconduct electronic surveillance and achieve the greatest amount ofgood. Employees as stakeholders need to be aware of organization’ssurveillance. When unaware, such a measure becomes unethical becausestakeholders are not included in meaningful decision making, whichaffects both employers and employees.