Historyof Urban and Regional Planning
In1800s, the cities grew very rapidly with the public having littlecontrol over it. The city planning was mainly controlled by the citycommercial elites who focused on the industrial growth and thecommercial centers. However, this planning ignored the neighborhoodthat encompassed mainly the immigrants and the poor. In this case,there was pressure for the development of reforms to develop thecities and address issues on traffic congestion, sanitation,concentration of poverty and wealth, lack of police protection,disease and corruption. These issues resulted from the rapid urbangrowth immigrants and industrial revolution (Norman, par).
Asa result, there was enactment of reforms to address the mishap in thecities. The major reforms included Public Control over privateproperty, sanitary reform, urban open space, Municipal improvement,City beautiful movement and Housing reform.
Therewere various individuals who contributed much to the city planning.These are:
Benjamin Ward Richardson who focused on the health of city for instance sewage handling. This pave way for establishment of Parks Movement that grew out of garden design and landscape architecture (Norman, par). Benjamin Ward Richardson was needed in order to make the city clean by creating sewerages, which enabled all sewage waste to be deposited in treatment areas, thereby creating conducive environment in the city.
Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) who designed :
Prospect Park (1865-1873),
Chicago`s Riverside subdivision
Buffalo`s park system (1868-1876),
The park at Niagara Falls (1887)
Hisparks were naturalistic and uplifted the city dwellers and addressedthe physical and social impacts of crowding. In addition, the parksenabled the city to have a fresh environment.
Settlement House Movement was spearheaded by Jane Addams who the main aim of elevating, educating and saving the poor (Norman, par). Jane Addams played key role in building affordable houses for the poor and amending education system in order to take account of the poor peoples.
The Actual Garden Cities in England are Letchworth founded in 1903 by the planners Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin and Welwyn planed by Louis de Soissons. These planners were needed in order to provide a modern design for the city, which encompass good roads, skyscrapers buildings, parks and great sewerage as well as water system.
TheBirth of Land use Zoning begun in 1886 at the San Francisco Chineselaundries to shut down the laundry in order to protect the health,morals, general welfare and safety of the citizens. The first zoninglaw was enacted in 1916 to protect the luxury store owners FifthAvenue and Jewish garment factories.
Currently,the city planning and designs have the main goals: constructingpatterns which are attractive and orderly, a functioning system fortransportation, municipal beautification, adequate parks andrecreation systems and property value safeguarding.
Dr.Norman. Historyof Urban and Regional Planning.School of Planning, Design and Construction. Summer 2014.