Childhoodobesity has many long term and short term effects on their physical,psychological and health aspects of their lives. The psychologicaleffects of diabetes in children like Steve include having symptoms ofdepression, developing eating disorders, having poor body figure, anddeveloping learning and behavior problems as well as low self-esteem.Some of the ways that obesity is going to affect Steve’s healthinclude developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension,non-alcoholic staetohepatititis which causes liver inflammation andfatty infiltration, and having low levels of HDL cholesterol in theblood while LDL cholesterol levels will be high. Early puberty andsleep apnea are also the effects of obesity (Poskitt & Laurel,2008).
Afitness program for thirteen years old Steve should include bodystrength activities, cardiovascular components as well as educationalcomponent. Although the program need should have intensive activitiesduring the weekends when the boy is out of school, it should beincorporated in the daily activities in school as well as afterschool. The daily program will begin with a three to five minuteswhich consists of a series of games that will get the boy moving.This could a tail tag, builders and bulldozer or synchronizedmovements. This will be followed by a series of games that enhancebody strength as well as cardiovascular conditioning. With a guidanceof a trained and a little creativity, there are numerous activitiesthat have great fun. The games should be aimed at strengthening theboy’s body, flexibility and general body fitness. The educationalcomponent will part of every day’s program which is aimed atinstilling basic fitness concepts on the child as well as the dangersof unhealthy lifestyles such as overindulgence on junk food. Thethree components should be part of every day’s activity while thechoice specific activity or game is at the discretion of the trainer(Ortega et al 2007). However, the physical trainer should be aware ofthe special health conditions, sport induced asthma, of Steven.
Althoughdiet is one of the most important aspects of managing obesity andrelated problems, the planning of a diet is very essential. Abalanced diet is very important for overweight individuals as well asindividuals struggling with obesity. A 13 years boy such as Stevenrequires a well managed diet through out the week. Figure 1 gives afair suggestion of what should constitute a balanced diet whichshould be used as a guide to the weekly diet plan. The diet planshould include carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and fats.These are essential for the normal development of the youngindividual. Specifically, every day’s meal should consist of fullgrain products, fruits, vegetables and animal and plant proteins. Itis also important to calculate the amount of calories contained inevery meal to aid in weight loss and avoid further weight gain. Mostimportantly, the nutrition plan should be aimed at eliminating theoverindulgence on junk food (Allen & Myers, 2006).
Dependingon the amount and type of alcoholic beverage taken, there arenumerous long term and short term effects of alcohol. Althoughscientists believe that some people are more likely to developalcohol related problems compared to others, excessive consumption ofalcohol will have adverse health effects on the individual. Some ofthe immediate or short term effects of alcohol on an individualinclude inaudible speech, vomiting and stomach upset, headaches, poorjudgment, blackout and unconsciousness. There are also long termeffects of alcohol which includes avoidable injuries dues toaccidents, cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, liverdiseases, nerve and brain damage and alcohol poisoning. Anotherimportant effect of alcohol is the impacts on the social life.Alcohol can result into broken families and relationship. Individualswho overindulge in alcohol have less time for their families. Thereare also financial implications of alcoholism. Majority of alcoholicindividuals are financially unstable and are unlikely to progresseconomically due to the high cost of maintaining their lifestyle(Peter, 2012).
Whetheran individual is obese, at a risk or having a healthy life, there arelifetime activities that are essential in averting obesity relatedhealth issues. The activities that are essential in the preventing ofobesity are similar to the steps adopted in the management ofobesity. They include regular exercises which includes moderate tointensive physical activities that enhance muscle building,cardiovascular health, burning excessive body fats and preventingweight gain. This may include favorite sports such as walking, ridinga bicycle, aerobics, swimming and ball games. Adopting a healthyeating habit is also an important lifetime activity. This includeseating a balanced diet while avoiding high calories foods, highlyprocessed junk foods, foods high in saturated fats and sugars. Thisis one of the most important lifestyle approaches to the problem ofobesity in the modern society. Avoiding traps and situations thattrigger unhealthy habits such as eating unhealthy junk foods is alsoan important lifetime activity. This can be done by having a writteneating plan which should be followed strictly. Other lifestylesactivities include regular monitoring of the body weight and beingconsistent. Monitoring weight frequently will enable an individualtake action when as small weight increase is noted before it becomesa problem. Being consistent increases the likelihood of success inavoiding or management of obesity (Poskitt & Laurel, 2008).
Allen,R. E. & Myers, A. L. (2006). "Nutrition in toddlers".AmericanFamily Physician74 (9): 1527–32
Ortega,F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Castillo. M. J. & Sjöström M (2007)."Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerfulmarker of health". IntJ Obes(Lond) 23 (1): 1–11.
Peter,M. (2012). Adolescents,Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through BriefInterventions.New York: Guilford Publications.
Poskitt,E. M. & Laurel E. (2008). Managementof childhood obesity,Cambridge NY: Cambridge University Press.