FINAL ESSAY EXAM 8
Dealingwith international crime is one of the major aspects that should beconsidered in efforts of maintaining world peace. There are variousfields under international crime, whose understanding is of essencein getting to understand criminal justice at an international crime.This means that each filed is treated differently and the casespresented are treated as per the provisions provided in internationallaw. This paper discusses few of the fields under international crimeand the emerging issues under these fields.
Genocideis regarded as a field under crimes against humanity where particularindividuals or groups are intentionally killed, mass destruction ofproperty, and extermination of people based on their religion, ethnicgroup or race. This means that the definition of genocide has beennarrowed down to where a particular group of people is targeted to bedestroyed wholly or partially through certain means. According toarticle 4 of The International Criminal Tribunal for the formerYugoslavia, for a crime to be considered as genocide, it has tofulfill the following two conditions: I) the crime must target aspecific group of people within a specific region II) the criminalact must be intended to destroy wholly or partially the particularmembers of the group. Such a definition differentiates genocide crimewith any other international on the basis of the intent of itsperpetrators (Boot, 2002).
Inother crimes against humanity, what is considered most is the actsthat were committed but no specific detail is given about the intentand the people who were being targeted by the perpetrators of thecriminal acts against humanity. A good example would be Rwanda wherethe Hutus mass slaughtered the Tutsi in 1994. In this time, the Hutusmurdered the Tutsis based on their ethnic group. Such acts couldtherefore be considered as genocide since the Hutus were massslaughtering the Tutsis as a specific group based on their ethnic.Additionally, it is clear that the target of the Hutus was to murderthe Tutsis wholly or partially. Considered as crimeagainst crimes,it is evident how genocide should be considered as a category of itsown under crimes against humanity (Schabas 2000).
Whenreviewing mass crimes against humanity based on ethnicity, race,color, or such aspects it is important to consider the politicalfactors that must have precipitated such crimes. In many a times,there is usually a source of such crimes, which is largely associatedwith the politics of the particular region. In many instances wheremass killings and destruction of property have been witnessed, thereis usually a political unrest where particular politicians or membersof a particular party feel undermined or feel the prevalence ofinjustice, mostly in matters of associated with power. When suchpeople get irritated, they incite their followers who in turn callfor action through various violent ways. However, it is worth notingthat there is a factor that causes unrest, and this is what leads tocalling for action through violence by people. For example, whenresources of a country are owned by a particular ethnic group orreligious community, it is likely that such a country lives withtension where the undermined group always have a bitter feeling onthe distribution of resources in that country. When prompted bytheir leaders, it is most probable that these people will riseagainst their rival group in show of their anger on the distributionof resources. Such an analysis means that when a country is facedwith crimes against humanity, it is important to dig deeper into allpossible factors that could have led to the situation. Such ascrutiny makes sure not only the perpetrators have been brought tobook but also future killings have been alleviated (Boot, 2002).
Internationaltrafficking has been one of the major international crimes that arebeing regarded as most complex international crime globally. With thelarge amounts of money that the drug traffickers deal with, they havestrong network that they operate in that makes them difficult to betraced. with economic gain being their primary goal, internationaldrug traffickers may indulge in other activities aimed at increasingtheir influence and market in the regions that they operate. With theincreased efforts on hunting down drug traffickers, drug traffickershave a found a new way of collaborating with major political figuresin carrying out their activities. Key political figures ingovernments have influenced security mechanisms used in tracking drugtrafficking and collaborated with the drug traffickers in increasingtheir influence in the particular country and reducing the chances ofbeing caught. Collaboration with the top political figures in aparticular region is not only meant for immunity against being caughtbut also brings some form of control of the drug traffickers of thematters of the country. In return, politicians have been known to getfinancial assistance together with influence among the people. Sincethe drug traffickers make millions of cash from their networks,funding political rallies and wowing voters never becomes an issue.From many instances, people tend to vote for politicians who seem tospend on their voters and such a strategy makes the political figuresremain in government. The worrying aspect about collaboration of drugtraffickers and politicians is that drug traffickers may build anetwork of influence over different countries. This means that theirnetwork can be extensive and their influence can cover severalcountries, making their operations simpler (Thoumi, 2005).
Sucha revelation brings to light the difficulty to be expected in tryingto combat drug trafficking globally. When the drug traffickers createa network of influence in countries, it is expected that these peoplemight end up affecting economic and social order in the particularcountries where they have formed their network. Even when one countrymay step up in combating drug trafficking in their country, it willbe difficult because their network might influence the case and hideany evidence in confirming the acts of the drug traffickers.Therefore, such a development where drug traffickers arecollaborating with top political figures in several countries is amenace to the strategies that countries are employing in combatingdrug trafficking (McCoy, 2003).
Transnationalcrime is a big threat to the world economy. It is therefore importantto come up with effective plans aimed at dealing with transnationalcrime. One of the strategies in the execution of the plan to reduceinternational crime is international cooperation between involvedcountries. In realization of such cooperation, it is important to setup common international standards that rule on the regulations thatshould be adhered when following up on transnational crimes. Settingof such standards will ensure that the criminals do not collaboratewith politicians in one of the country and hinder the progress ofidentification and combating of transnational crime. Intelligence andinformation sharing is a strategy that countries will need to employin reducing transnational crime. In this strategy, openness and acommon goal will be important because if one country refuses tocooperate, then it is likely that the whole process will be messed upand the goal of reducing transnational crime might never be realized.With the latest technological improvements, intelligence and sharingof information may not be an issue since the involved countries mayalso set up their own network that will aid in hunting the criminals(Bassiouni, 2008). For example, when a country suspects of certainindividuals committing crimes, they can collaborate with the othercountry in monitoring the movement and activities of the suspectsthrough satellite, emails, and communication devices. With suchstrategies, it will be possible to make god use of technology inregulating and even stopping transnational crimes.
Ithas been common for countries to defend their nationals whensuspected or caught of crime in another country. Such acts bygovernments have been known to interfere with the interdiction,investigative processes, and possible prosecutions of suchindividuals. In attaining this plan of putting an end totransnational crime, there is the need for the involved countries tostep up strategies in dealing with investigative processes andinterdiction. This is because, when the involved countries cooperateit will be possible to have perpetrators brought to book andprosecuted. In light to the prosecution process, it is important tohave strict guidelines during prosecution of the suspected culpritsto be undertaking transnational crime. For example, when a suspectis proved guilty of transnational crime, he or she should given aharsh sentence like twenty-five years or so. Such a strategy willhelp in scaring away the criminals and other potential criminalswilling to get their heads into transnational crime (Bassiouni,2008).
Whenexecuting the plan to end transnational crime, it is important tonote that networking is the basic structure that makes their actspossible. When hunting down such criminals, it is important for theinvolved countries to track down the network on which the criminalsoperate. Besides the criminal lords that are known, there are alwaysunderground people who will exist even when their leaders areprosecuted. This means that such countries will need to be verydetailed when it comes to hunting down the whole networking intransnational criminal activities (Mandel, 2011). In realization ofthe objectives from the strategy of eliminating transnational crime,political affiliation and transnational crime will also need to bedealt with. Since the politicians are the ones who offer immuneassistance to the criminals, it is important for countries topinpoint the politicians dealing with the criminals. Although thismight be a hard task, dedicated investigative processes can easilyget the politicians and prosecute them. With such, it will bepossible to paralyze the network of the criminals, a positive notetowards ending transnational crime. The execution of plan on bringan end to transnational might prove to be very hard but it is fromdedication, cooperation, and common goal that all countries will endall networks associated with transnational crime.
Bassiouni,M. C. (2008). Internationalcriminal law.Leiden, The Netherlands: M. Nijhoff Publishers.
Boot,M. (2002). Genocide,crimes against humanity, war crimes: Nullum crimen sine lege and thesubject matter jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.Antwerpen: Intersentia.
Mandel,R. (2011). Darklogic: Transnational criminal tactics and global security.Stanford, Calif: Stanford Security Studies.
McCoy,A. W. (2003). Thepolitics of heroin: CIA complicity in the global drug trade Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, Central America, Colombia.Chicago, Ill: Lawrence Hill Books.
Schabas,W. (2000). Genocidein international law: The crime of crimes.New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thoumi,F. E. (2005). Politicaleconomy and illegal drugs in Colombia.Boulder: Rienner.