EVOLUTION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE 4
The United Stated criminal justice system, as well as those of othercountries have come a long way to be the way they are. In the UnitedStates, the criminal justice dates back to the colonial era when heBritish had procedures through which offenders could be punished.There were various laws and provisions, which most of the times werenot favorable to the Americans. In other words, the laws were seen asbeing unjust and unfair. The criminal justice system was viewed asoppressing the American people. This prompted a series of changes inthe criminal justice system such as the recommendations by WilliamPenn in the 17th century (Jones, 2011).
It is imperative to note that the criminal justice system is acollection of three components which are the police, the courts andthe corrections component. All these branches in the criminal justicesystem have their roots in the laws and customs of the British. Thishas largely been associated with the fact that the British colonizedthe United States and left them with the colonial criminal justicesystem policies (Jones, 2011). An English king by the name Alfred theGreat, has been associated with the modern police force organizationand conduct of work. His leadership made families to organize patrolsin their regions. These patrols had their leaders who commonly knownas the sheriffs. This form of organization was adopted in New York,Boston and Philadelphia in the 1700. Philadelphia created 10 patrolareas by 1705 (Jones, 2011). This is a clear indication that themodern police force and its organization has a lot from the Englishkingdom.
Population growth in the period between the revolution in Americaand the civil war saw the establishment of the municipal policedepartments. Philadelphia and New York established police forces thatwould patrol both during the day and at night. Although the sheriffsystem was not fully adopted in some states in the United States, itcontinues to be used in some parts of the world. The sheriff systemand the police system are almost identical except that a sheriff iselected while the police chiefs are appointed by the government.
Before the American Revolution, the courts were following the lawsof Britain. This was a main cause of discussion and was a hotlycontested matter. The laws, which were used by the colonialistsseemed to be favoring the British over the Americans. Theconstitution was to be amended in 1787 in the Sixth Amendment and theEight Amendment, which directly affected the criminal justice system(Jones, 2011). The fifth amendment sought to bring forth a dueprocess in a court of law where an accused person must be informed ofhis accusations and be given sufficient time to prepare for hisdefense. On the other hand, the sixth amendment sought to give theaccused some rights such the right to be heard by jury in a speedydue process of law.
In the corrections department, the colonial laws emphasized on theaspect of punishment and execution. However, in the 1800, theAmerican government sought to change this form of correction.Instead, a vast majority of state in America turned to imprisoningtheir offenders rather than punishing them. This was shortly tochange in the mid-1800 when reforming offenders took center stage(Jones, 2011). This changed to rehabilitation where criminals are nowcharged ad taken to rehabilitation centers before being released.
Jones, M. (2011). History of Criminal Justice. Burlington:Elsevier Science.