Thistheory argues that individuals’ moral and or political obligationsor duties depend on an agreement or contract among them in order toform a successful society. Individuals enter into an agreement thatresult in the formation of an organized society or state in order toenhance protection, which incorporate the surrender of some or allliberties that a person have (Moore, 2006). Veterinary surgeons makea certain declaration upon admission into this professionalism(Engdahl, 2010). The declaration helps the veterinary surgeonsacquire necessary support and advice with regard to the appropriateprinciples of professional practice. Veterinarians also agree to keepall records clear, detailed, and accurate. They achieve this throughthe reusing of samples, disposal, post mortems, and images. They alsoagree to keep a client’s information secret they should neverdisclose such information without the client knowledge or consent. Additionally, they agree to respond to clients’ complaints andcritics in a polite and timely manner. Veterinary also adhere toprotecting the public interest at all times. According to AmericanVeterinary Medical Association (2014), veterinarians are alsorequired to obtain the necessary documents that allow them to provideveterinary services and products. Any person who goes against what isoutlined in these legal documents stand a chance of losing his or herreputation as well as creating much mistrust amongst the public.Additionally, the provision of mental health services to veterinaryis implied in a social contract.
Thistheory argues that any action should be considered as morally rightif the largest number of beings with the greatest good benefit fromit. It further insists that what is right should be measured by theamount of suffering or pleasure an action cause (Noble, 2010).Therefore, a right or appropriate action is considered as one thatgives most pleasure or least suffering to the majority of individualsin a group. According to veterinary principles, veterinary surgeonsare supposed to indulge in activities that guarantee the welfare andhealth of animals. These actions include professional competence,accountability, impartiality, independence, honest, integrity, andimpartiality. They give first priority to animal welfare and healthhence, whenever an animal falls sick they accord it the appropriatecare and treatment immediately. They ensure that they have a 24 hourservice plan for relief of any pain that an animal may suffer from aswell as first aid emergencies for affected animals (AmericanVeterinary Medical Association, 2014). This is a clear indicationthat veterinary surgeons put first priority in ensuring that allanimals are in good condition in other words, their actions benefitthe large group. Additional, veterinaries are required to be honestand open with their clients as well as to take care of the needs oftheir clients at all times. As a result, they give independent andimpartial advice to their clients since they are responsible atensuring the satisfaction of the clients. Similarly, surgeonveterinarians always notify their clients in case of any increase incost of services and medical costs. Indeed, surgeon’s veterinariansact in accordance with utilitarianism theory that argue that anyaction should satisfy the majority of people or being involved. Again, veterinarians’ codes of ethic require them to indulge inteam work in order to meet the needs of all animals and clients in anappropriate and timely manner. Team work also helps take care ofanimal as well as procure services in an effective and efficientmanner. On the other hand, veterinary surgeons’ code of ethicsprohibits them from taking part in activities or actions that maypose risk to animal health as well as to the general public health.For instance, any action that they undertake should not pollute theenvironment. In connection to this, veterinarians are required to usedrugs that do not harm the public as well as to dispose any usedchemicals in the best way possible in order to avoid pollution to theenvironment. They are also required to do the advertisement of theirservices and products in a professional manner in order to avoidmisjudgment from the public. Veterinary surgeons’ actions meet thewelfare and wealth of all animals as well as ensure that clients’needs are met in a quick manner (Engdahl, 2010).
Virtualethics refer to theories that put much effort on the role ofcharacter and virtue rather than in doing one’s duty or indulgingin actions that bring good consequences. A person who exhibit idealcharacter traits is considered as a virtuous (Brannmark, 2009). Mostof these traits are natural however, they need to be nurtured inorder to for them to be fully established and stabilized. Virtueethics theories give a provision of a self-centred conception ofethics. Various factors like family, society, friends, and educationaffect the ability of an individual to cultivate the right virtues.Veterinary surgeons exhibit high level of confidence in dealing withtheir clients. They do not disclose a client’s information withouthis or her consent since they consider their client as the mostsignificant being in their work.
AmericanVeterinary Medical Association (AVMA), (2014). Principlesof Veterinary Medical Ethics of the AVMA.Retrieved From,https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/Principles-of-Veterinary-Medical-Ethics-of-the-AVMA.aspx.
Brannmark,J. (2009). EthicalTheories and the Transparency Condition.EthicalTheory and Moral Practice,12(5), 449-462.
Engdahl,S. (2010). Animalwelfare.Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Moore,A. (2006). EthicalTheory, Completeness & Consistency.EthicalTheory and Moral Practice,10(3), 297-308.
Noble,C.N. (2010). Normative.TheMonist,62 (4), 496-509.