DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES 5
In chapter nine, leadership and employee performance, Klingner,Nalbandian and Llorens in Public Personnel Management: Contextsand Strategies (6th Edition), start by reminding the readers ofthe contents of chapter 3-5 where planning and organization of humanresource needs were covered. In this chapter, however, the authorsare quick to point out in the beginning that it is the issue ofdeveloping the human resources that are covered. According to theauthors, the development function of the human resources involves thematching of employee competencies to the organizational problems.Human resource development function also involves the development ofthe employee competencies, as well as the evaluation of the employeeperformance (Klingner et al, 2010).
The development function in this chapter involves leadership andmotivation of the human resource. The authors point out that agencymanagers must understand the different motivation theories if theyhave to influence the performance of their employees. The authorspoint out to the fact there are differences between the political andadministrative viewpoints in that the political view in anorganization is responsive to the people while the administrativeview is efficiency. In other words, the authors try to differentiatethe management styles of elected leaders and the appointed leaders.The authors continue to suggest that there exists a huge differencebetween the way politicians view administration and the wayadministrators view it. To the politician, administration is like agame whereas to the experts it is a serious analytical process thathas problems to be solved. It is also apparent that the politicians’administrative approach focusses on the outside or the external ofthe organization, whereas the experts focus on the internal (Klingneret al, 2010).
The authors continue with the chapter by pointing out thatpsychological contracts are similar to legal contracts. The authorsgive the example of a new employee who expects the supervisor or themanager to guide him through the orientation process. The authorscontinue to point out to the equity theory that is used to indicatewhether employees feel that they are treated equally. The authorspoint out that it is critical to treat all employees equally since itensures that the employees are loyal to the organization, have thegood will and can go the extra mile, as well as motivates employees.The authors continue to point out to the expectancy theory whichasserts the employees are motivate to do a particular task if theyare convinced by the expected reward. In addition, the theory alsosuggests that employees will perform optimally depending on theextent to which the employee believes that he or she can do theassigned task (Müller, 2010). According to the authors of thischapter, the two theories can be used by human resource departmentsto increase employees’ performance, as well as raise their morale.
In regard to employee motivation, the authors suggest that there arevarious factors that affect employee performance and motivation. Theypoint out to the political influence, agency managers, as well as thehuman resource managers as stakeholders who affect employeemotivation. Equal pay for equal work has been pointed out as asignificant factor in ensuring employee motivation and superiorperformance. Public servants can be motivated through the publicservice motive where people serve the government out of desire.People can only do this if they see that they are making a differencein society through their work (Klingner et al, 2010). Theauthors have also pointed out that spirituality is associated withemployee motivation.
The authors also point out that employees need to be committed totheir work if they have to be motivated. There are various measuresthat the human resource managers can take in order to ensure thatemployees are committed to their work. These measures includeincentives, equal pay for equal work, as well as provide meaningfulwork to the employees. The organization must also offer an effectivelife work balance if they have to attract competitive and experiencedemployees. Team work and collaboration should also be encouragedamongst employees in order to raise their morale and commitment totheir work. The job that employees do must also be enriched.
This chapter has presented critical steps that can aid publiclyemployed employees to increase their morale and commitment for theirjob. The chapter points out to the idea of equal pay for equal workas a key factor that influences employee motivation. I must confessthat this has been an interesting chapter to read as it captures theattention of the reader from page to page. The reading gives insightinto the various aspects that affect employee motivation andcommitment in the public sector. It was interesting to note thatthere exists a significant difference between administration andpolitics.
Whereas the reading has given sufficient information in regard toemployee motivation and the roles played by various stakeholders inensuring employee motivation, I do feel that the authors could havetouched on the issue of conflict resolution. Conflicts are common inthe public sector amongst employees. Therefore, there needs to be awell-developed procedure trough which employees’ conflicts areresolved amicably.
Klingner, D.E, Nalbandian, J., and Llorens, J. (2010). PublicPersonnel Management: Contexts and Strategies (6th Edition). NewYork: Longman/Pearson.
Müller, C. (2010). Employee motivation an incentives at Apple:Do incentives really help to motivate employees? Norderstedt:GRIN Verlag.