BusinessEthics and Human Resource
CourseCode and Title
BUSINESSETHICS AND HUMAN RESOURCE
EthicalDecision Making and Training
Individualcharacteristics are traits usually ingrained and learnt through theindividuals` lifetime. Young individuals have fluctuating traits dueto lack of experience. This however changes with the onset of age andacquisition of wisdom through experience. Individual characteristicssuch as the level of education, the culture and upbringing thatinstills moral values have a high impact on ethical beliefs,sensitivity to circumstances, intentions and behaviors.Characteristics such as trust and individual mental health controlthe ability of a person to make rational decisions on what path tofollow. The traits have an impact on beliefs, sensitivities, andindividual intentions. According to Ajzen, an individuals` mentalstate dictates what kind of behavior they exhibited whetherdeliberate or subconsciously. Ethical beliefs are impacted upon byculture. The rates of reaction to certain situations, orsensitivities differ from one individual to another and collectivelyaccording to their experience in life and ethical codes. Montano andKasprzyk (2008), note that behaviors are aped and adopted for anindividual to adapt which in turn changes the individuals overallcharacter.
IcekAjzen’s theory of planned behavior postulates that an individuals’intention to act or react based on behavior is unique to theindividual and is affected by the persons’ attitude towards thebehavior he portrays, the moral code he submits to and his ability tochange depending on the situation. Ajzen notes that the behavior anindividual exhibit is affected by the geographical location andpeople around him, attitudes towards the target and moral codes. Anindividual’s act can be by subjective norms, attitude andindividual control over the behavior that pre-controls the intentionto act in a certain manner. Montano and Kasprzyk (2008) support thisnotion. They opine that the behavior is controlled and affected byexternal and internal variables.
Theinternal variables are those factors that an individual can controlor are in him. The external variables, on the other hand, are thosethat affect the individual’s behavior from the surroundingenvironment. Rest`s model also supports Ajzen`s theory of plannedbehavior. Rest notes that an individual behaves in a moral mannerwhen he is aware of negative repercussions can form a moral judgmentin case the behavior is against society norms, develops motivation orintention to act and holds high moral values.
Diversityand Ethics Reporting systems
Discriminationin the workplace occurs in different ways and various forms such assexual harassment in the form of unwanted sexual advances, offensivegender related remarks and physical harassment. Discrimination occurson a religious platform. Individuals are for belonging to aparticular religion and offered opportunities if they are of anotherparticular religion. Discrimination also occurs against members of acertain gender. Gender bias occurs at a high rate when member ofeither gender, mostly female are on the level of abilities they holdto do a task. According to Cortina (2008), discrimination in theworkplace reduces the individual`s performance and overall, the imageof the company. Due to discrimination, people with skills are oftenoverlooked and left out. Globalization has changed the world into onevillage where races have freely interacted. Companies and authoritiesconcerned with the management have enacted laws that preventdiscrimination against any individual. An example is in the Kenyanconstitution in Africa. In chapter four: the bill of rights, statesthat every person is equal and has the right to protection and equalbenefit of the law. Specific laws in each state that guardindividuals against discrimination:
‘Equality includes full and equal enjoyment of rights and fundamental freedoms’
‘All citizens have equal rights to fair treatment, including equitable distribution of political, social- economic spheres’
‘Specifics laws also include the right to worship and congregate’
‘Right and access to equal opportunities in employment, space and justice’
Accordingto Richard, diversifying in management is advantageous because itenhances the experiential gain in the staff. Diversifying inmanagement also enables effective communication in the workplace,ensuring all the operations of a business are working efficiently.This occurs due to the need to create effective communication systemsto cater for all the different races or groups that might be workingin a certain company. There is an increase in profitability with thediversification of management in companies due to the incorporationof each member of the team at the company without discrimination.
Thegrasp of an effective means of diversity management to a manager isimportant since it ensures that the workplace discriminations do notoccur in the company.
Managersas Ethical Leaders & Empowering Ethical Employees
Managersare tasked with the leadership, delegation and stewardship of acompany or organization. The manager`s sources of power range fromthe legitimate power which comes with the formal role of holding themanagerial position. The other source of power is the referent powerwhich is based on the professional relationship between the managerand other employees and his referred role as their supervisor.Managers also hold coercive powers that enable managers to pose athreat to the employees` tenure at work ensuring that all employeesperform well due to fear of reprisals or loss of work. Expert poweris another source of power achieved through experience gained by themanager at the workplace where the employees hold the manager in highesteem in terms of the knowledge held in the field. The other sourceof power is the reward power where employees are aware of themanager’s ability to influence reward to employees with goodperformance. Business ethics dictates that the manager should notabuse the powers they hold so as to maintain a good work atmosphereand not affect productivity. Managers who abuse their powers enforceauthoritarianism or lack of fairness in the workplace. Ethicalleadership requires an exercise of the powers associated withmanagement with caution. Authoritarian leaders always pose a risk tothe establishment by instilling fear in their subordinates, reducingproductivity.
Accordingto Ciulla (2004), individuals with high moral values exhibit goodleadership skills that are valuable to any department or company theylead. Authoritarian managers though prevent and limit creativity,cause loss of inspiration in employees due to a lack of referencepoint in the company for motivation. A participatory style ofmanagement equally portrays negative effects on the employees andproductivity. Employees tend to lack the respect for a participatorymanager and also view them as disinterested leading lacklusterperformance. A task cannot be effectively tackled without efficientleadership. Ethical leadership is leadership in accordance with themoral values that ensure just and fair treatment and delegation in aparticular sphere. Employees are at ease to disclose ethical issueswith their managers who hold high moral values.
Accordingto Baker and Comer, employees level of trust and reference increaseand they are at ease to discuss ethical issues with their manager.This helps in the prevention of problems than when an employee wouldreport to his manager in a dire situation.
CommunityOutreach & Respect
Corporatesocial responsibility is an adoptive approach by all companies tomake a positive impact in their surrounding communities. The fourtypes of social responsibilities that businesses have are economic,legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. A business`economic responsibility to the community is only possible if it makesa profit from conducting business that will in turn create jobs forthe people in the community. A business legal responsibility to thecommunity is to ensure it operates within the legal frameworkprovided ensuring that it guards the legal right of its employees.The ethical responsibilities of the business are by the businessowners ensuring that they adhere to the moral standards set by thecommunity in which they operate. The business also has aphilanthropic responsibility in the community which is possible afterit has met its profit targets and balanced its accounts ledger. Thephilanthropic responsibility of business enables it to donate tosociety in meaningful and life impacting projects.
Theethical pros and cons of operating a sweatshop in a developing nationare extensive. The sweatshop owners have an obligation to provideemployment to the people in the community, to ensure they protect therights of their employees. This enables the sweatshop to maximizeprofits since they are as supportive to the community. The cons ofoperating a sweatshop in the community occur when the business is on profit making at the expense of its employees.
Inconclusion, ethics in business is an important factor which controlsthe ability of a business to operate efficiently leading to successof the business. Each business, therefore, requires every employee tohave high ethical and moral standards.
Ajzen,I. (2011). Theory of planned behavior. HandbookTheory of Sociology and Psychology Vol One
Baker,S. D., & Comer, D. R. (2012).“Business Ethics Everywhere” AnExperiential Exercise to Develop Students’ Ability to Identify andRespond to Ethical Issues in Business.Journal of Management education,
Ciulla,J. B. (Ed.). (2004). Ethics,the heart of leadership.Greenwood Publishing Group.
Cortina,L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discriminationin organizations. Academyof Management Review
Montano,D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. (2008). Theory of reasoned action, theoryof planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. Healthbehavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice
Richard,O. C. (2000). Racial diversity, business strategy, and firmperformance: A resource-based view. Academyof management journal