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ColonizationEfforts of the New World by Europe
Spanish,French, Dutch, and the British all wanted to establish their coloniesin the nineteenth century. The Spanish were Christians whose mainobjective was to establish Spanish empires in Mexico and othersouthern parts of United States (Martin et al. 109). During the threehundred year period after 1492, Spain captured and settled in mostparts of the Caribbean, South America, and American southwest. TheSpanish colonizer organized a huge imperial system, which it woulduse to exploit the labor, minerals, and land wealth of the new world.There were military and infectious diseases that scared away thenative population and this worked in favor of the Spanish. Researchhas indicated that the Spanish empire has been one of the largest inEurope since the ancient Rome. The Spanish used the wealth that theyhad accumulated to protect themselves. They used their powerful armyand massive navy to offer them security, as well as bring Catholicismto the new world. However, the growth of racially mixed societydeveloped enmity between the American colonies and the Spanishcolonies. By 1824, all Spanish new colonies had fought for theirindependence except Puerto Rico and Cuba.
TheSpanish colonized most of the central and southern American states.Similarly, the Spanish also managed to establish other colonies inCalifornia and southwest in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.In 1942, the Spanish arrived in most parts of America. In the courseof more than three hundred and fifty years, the Spanish had managedto rule a large empire with the aim of labor exploitation. Theywanted to bring Catholicism to the American populace, and at the sametime take away their wealth and resources. It is increasingly evidentfrom research that self-interest and religion were the main ideasthat pulled many Spanish from their countries with the hope to winmore souls for God, as well as find riches.
TheSpanish government worked extremely hard to ensure that it ruled thenew world, despite the long distance between the particular states.They adapted the Viceroyalties and Audencias systems and theyintroduced royal courts of appeal so that they would punish those whowere against their rule. In addition, they introduced the Spanishmonarchy to enable them have total control over their empire withoutinterference from the central government. Further, they used theexisting churches, as well as built other new churches, to spread thegospel.
TheFrench colonization began in the sixteenth century and continued forthree hundred years. They instituted colonies in the parts ofCaribbean island, southern America, and North America. Their focalobjective for colonization was to conduct fish, sugar, and furbusinesses. As they were colonizing the new world, they establishedforts and settlements that later became cities such as Montreal andQuebec in Canada, Cap-Haitian and Port-au-Prince in Haiti, Green bay,St. Louis, Mobile, Detroit, New Orleans, and Baton Rouge in theUnited States (Martin et al. 111). To emphasize more on theircolonies, the French promoted Francization as an Indian policy. Thepolicy called for Indians to convert to Catholicism, and adapt theFrench culture. As a consequence, the French colonist allowed andencouraged intermarriages to promote Indian civilization. The chiefgoal behind these ideas was that intermarriages would increase thepopulation of children who were brought up according to Frenchcustom. Further, the French recognized the Native Americansovereignty as political entities. This was with the aim of bringingand processing fur for shipping (Martin et al. 65). Because theFrench were peace advocators and relied on democracy, they did notimpose French laws to the Indians, but instead they modified theirown in case there was a conflict between the two laws. They also didnot allow the French officials to punish Indians, who broke theIndians law, but instead they mandated the Indian to punish them.Moreover, the French took some time to learn and understand theIndian culture rather than despising it. In addition, they alsolearned how to speak and write in the Indian language. In fact, theywere the only colonist to recognize and appreciate the culture andcustoms of their colonies.
Inthe sixteenth century, the Dutch entrepreneurs established a newNetherlands with a series of trading posts, towns and forts along theHudson River. The Dutch managed to colonize various regions such asAlbany and New York City. In 1609, the Dutch colonist establishedsettlements in Jamestown, Virginia where they employed the Englishsailor Henry Hudson. Henry’s role was to find the northern routeleading to India though he did not succeed. As an effort for theircolonization, the Dutch parliament came up with the West IndiaCompany that was a national joint company to organize and oversee allthe Dutch ventures. The company sought recognition in the areas inthe new world (Martin et al. 87). As a result, more than thirtyfamilies landed in North America and established some settlements. Inthe same year, the Dutch colony built Fort Nassau on the DelawareRiver in Gloucester, New Jersey. Unlike the English colonist, theDutch focused on lucrative fur trade and exhibited no interest inagriculture.
TheBritish colonist settled in the new world countries for variousreasons. To start with, they are those that wanted to exploit variousresources, trade them, and later make profit (Martin et al. 145).There are also those who wanted to free Catholicism, as well asspread the gospel of Jesus. For the British, their core aim was toventure in proprietors or joint-stock companies. As soon as theyarrived, they encountered some French and Spanish settlements. Theystarted their colonization in 1607 in Jamestown and Virginia and theysoon spread to other parts of America. The British colonists were themost significant colonizers in America. However, they faced rivalswith the Spanish American colonies who also had strong military andwere economically empowered. To establish their empire, the Britishcolonies caused a dramatic disorder among the native population inAmerica. They did it directly where they would use its military toforce people away from their land, or indirectly whereby they wouldintroduce disease or cultural disruption (Martin et al.152). Theindifferences in trade between the colonists and the Native Americanswere a key source of conflicts. Most of the native societies hadformed warrior classes, which the British had to fight with, in orderto capture land. Further, the British colonies divided themselvesinto three groups: the royal colonies, the charter colonies, and theproprietary colonies (Martin et al. 158). Every group was given itsown duties and responsibilities. Through the three colonies, theBritish government was able to control a vast majority of theircolonial empires.
Thefour nations: Spain, Britain, France, and Netherlands had differencesin their effects of colonization (Martin et al. 52). For instance,the Spanish set up fiefdoms whereby they chose a ruler from Spaininstead of from the local residents. In addition, the Spanish peopleended up mingling with the natives resulting in the moderndifferences between the Spanish and the Latinos. On the other hand,the French did not colonize expansive sections of the new world.However, their main purpose for colonization was to conduct trade.Due to their colonization, there was the formation of the Quebec Cityin Canada. The French colonization led to intermarriages between theIndians and the freshmen and this led to the spread of Christianity(Martin et al. 182). On the other hand, the British were able toconquer most parts of America, as well as many other parts of theworld. Similarly, the British colonization led to intermarriagesbetween the natives and the settlers. In addition, they also imposedtheir language and institutions to the native people of theircolonies. The Dutch also intermarried with their colonies’ nativepeople and carried out trade. However, they did not introduce theirlanguage and religion to the native populace.
Themost successful colonial power by 1775 was the Spanish. This isbecause it conducted numerous businesses and exploited many mineralshence, making huge profits. For instance, it exploited minerals suchas gold and silver, which was used to make ornaments (Martin et al.133). Further, the Spanish engaged themselves in the Trans-Atlantictrade where they traded goods such as foodstuff, nails, and weapons,among others. At a time where no one would move to a far land withoutsailing a ship, the Spanish colonies ensured that there was no othercolony that produced goods such as canvas for sails, tar for sailingships, or hemps for ropes. In addition, the Spanish were involved inslave trade, which ensured that they made immense profits. Lastly,the availability of cheap labor was a huge plus for them in terms ofagricultural activities (Martin et al. 94).
Martin,James K., Randy Roberts, Mintz, Steven, Linda O. McMurray, and JamesH. Jones. Americaand Its Peoples. Fifth Edition. Study Edition.New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. ISBN: 9780321419965. Print.