ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4
Name of the Student
Name of the Institution
Shim, S. H. (2008). A philosophical investigation of the role ofteachers: A synthesis of Plato,
Confucius, Buber, and Freire. Teaching and Teacher Education,24, 515–535
Shim (2008) seeks to show that teachers have an ideal role of selfrealization, on top of their contribution to the development ofindividuals and societies. To support his argument, Shim conducts ananalysis of the perspectives of Freire, Buber, Confucius and Platotowards the teaching practice. Despite their different approaches,the findings of the study indicate that all the four scholars believethat teachers should not just transmit knowledge for immediate use tothe students. Rather, the students should investigate matters in theinformation provided by the teachers. In addition, all the fourscholars agree that the teachers should provide assistance tostudents in the investigation process, through mutual dialogue. Aswell, the scholars agree that a mutual dialogue between teachers andstudents supports self-realization, on top of improving learningoutcomes. Shim concludes that teachers should engage students inmutual, investigative dialogues and teach them to apply objectiveapproach in acquiring new knowledge, in order to supportself-actualization and to improve overall learning outcomes. Oneevident limitation of the study is that it is based on a very broadtopic. A narrower topic could have led to more specific findings ifhe had narrowed the topic of study.
When reading the article, I found useful information that isapplicable in both formal and informal learning contexts. Forinstance, Shim indicates that when a teacher engages in investigativedialogue with the students, he/she fosters a caring and relationalattitude of students. I realized that the investigative dialogue is agood approach to teaching and learning in informal settings since itenhances interactional skills. In my view, the article has relevantinformation since it is based on a recent study. In addition, theinformation is reliable since the researcher consults the approachesthat have been developed by famous scholars.
Deans, T. (1999). Service Learning in Two Keys: Paul Frere’sCritical Pedagogy in Relation to
John Dewey’s Pragmatism. Michigan Journal of Community ServiceLearning, 6, 15-29
Deans (1999) evaluates the educational and philosophical theoriesdeveloped by Paulo Freire and John Dewey. The study compares theperspectives held in the two theories, and to examine how they dealwith the relationship between individual and society, as well as therelationship between action and reflection. Deans uses collegewriting samples to illustrate the implications of the frameworksdeveloped by Freire and Dewey. As well, Deans applies contentanalysis approach when comparing the theories. The findings of thestudy indicate that, although Freire and Dewey on their perspectivestowards service-learning pedagogy, they depart on their perspectivesof the purpose of education. While Dewey focuses on theservice-learning pedagogy only, Freire also examines the impact ofrace, power and class. Deans concludes that, although Freire andDewey overlap on several characteristics of service-learning, each oftheir frameworks can be applied in different learning contexts, inthe society. One evident limitation of the article is that is hasmany long direct quotes that lengthen the article and tend to obscurehis own ideas. To improve the structure of the article and convey ownideas well, the author should not have used many long quotes.
Although the article is almost fifteen years old, I find it relevantas a reference for current and future research. The article evaluatestheoretical frameworks that explain the fundamental aspects ofservice-learning pedagogy. Since the establishment of the theories,the fundamental aspects have not changed and are not likely to changein the near future. In addition, the information in the article isreliable since Deans evaluates numerous sources to support hisarguments. The information in the article is useful to me since Ilearned that I should apply the most appropriate theoreticalframework to a specific formal or informal learning context.