ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4
Name of the Student
Name of the Institution
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York, NY:Continuum
The article contains a section extracted from the Pedagogy of theOppressed. In the extract, Freire (1970) proposes for a positiverelationship between individuals. In particular, the purpose of theinformation in the extract is to emphasize on the importance ofdialogue in enhancing mutual relationship between the teachers, thescholars, students and other members of the society. Freire takes anarrative approach in the explanation of the importance of mutualdialogue. The findings of the study indicate that a dialogue is animportant tool that can help to free the colonized and to overcomeproblems in the society, through cultural synthesis, organization,unity and cooperation. Freire also finds without dialogue, thepowerful in the society get a good opportunity to use detrimentalapproaches such as the concept of divide and rule, cultural invasion,manipulation and conquest. Freire concludes that dialogue is anecessary aspect in the support for a revolution, and impedingdialogue supports the status quo. An explicit weakness of the studyis that the information in it is based on the author’s subjectivejudgment. Freire could have strengthened the study through givingconsideration to empirical analysis.
Before reading the extract, I was aware that mutual dialogue canfoster positive relationship between individuals. However, I was notaware that dialogue has a power that is enough to drive massivechanges in the society. From the information in the extract, Ilearned that a dialogue can foster massive changes, such as arevolution. Thus, the extract is very informative. In addition, theinformation is relevant since it is applicable in the contemporaryworld, despite the fact that the source is more than four decadesold. Thus, the extract can inform current researches related to thesame topic of study. However, the lack of empirical findings tosupport the arguments presented in the article makes it less reliableas a reference for empirical studies.
Eisner, E. (2002). Ten Lessons the Arts Teach. StanfordUniversity, 7-14
Eisner (2002) describes the lessons that people learn from art. Thepurpose of the article is “to explain the developmental, creativeand intellectual skills that students can learn from arts. Eisner(2002) uses facts, illustrations, previous literature and scholarlymodels to support her arguments. The findings of the study indicatethat the arts teach students to make good judgments when engaging inquality relationships, each problem has more than one solution, howto views arts from different perspectives, how to deal with complexforms of problem solving and that a human mind has the capacity tolearn despite limit in language. In addition, the arts teach childrenthat large effects can occur due to small differences, how to thinkwithin and through a material and how to say things that aredifficult to disclose. Lastly, the arts give students uniqueexperience and enable them to focus on what the adults regard asimportant. Eisner (2002) concludes that the arts contribute to thegrowth of a human mind, experience and meaning. The main weakness ofthe study is that the findings are mainly based on personal views,rather than on empirical studies. The study could have beenstrengthened through the use of more real examples.
The article increased my knowledge on the impact of arts on learners.I realized that the arts play a big role in the development of thehuman mind. Before reading the article, I held the notion that theexperience gained from arts can only be applied in educational or jobsettings. From the article, I learned that I can gain experiencethrough learning arts, which I can apply in social settings,especially in the development of healthy qualitative relationships.Although the article is informative, it is not very reliable for apresent or future research because the study is largely based on theviews of the author. However, it may be partially relevant toresearchers.