INFANT FORMULA 16
Aninvestigation into the best Infant Formula for the experienced andnew mothers and factors underlying those choices
Therequest to carry out the research proposal was initiated by GoodShepherd Hospital to determine the need to educate new and oldmothers on substitution on the best formula. The research is set outto determine the necessity of giving mothers vital information onvarious issues concerning formula feeding. Some of the main issuesthat the research focus on is to determine how much information themothers have when it comes to introducing their baby to the formula,what type of formula is ideal for the baby depending on the infant`shealth status. Indeed, some babies are allergic to certain formulasfor instance, powder formula. The research is also set out toestablish whether mothers have the knowledge on how to hygienicallyhandle and store the formulas. Among other things, the research isgoing to look at the major types and brands of baby formula that arethere in the market. Nevertheless, there are some of the side effectsthat will be explored, which are commonly experienced by the babiesusing the products. The manner of carrying out the research willdepend on the resources that will be at the disposal this will alsoapply to the number of phases the research will go through beforedrawing the conclusions. In this research proposal, the over-view ofwhat is going to be researched on will be highlighted on a smallscale. In addition, the research will not name any specific brandswith reference to their popularity or unpopularity. Essentially,there is no brand that will be disapproved or approved, thus therecommendations made will be anchored on the choice of the formulaaccording to its efficacy to the infants.
Table of Contents
Background of the study 4
Significance of the study 5
Purpose of the research 5
Research questions 6
Definition of terms 6
Data analysis 7
Research pictorial 8
Literature review 9
Theresearch proposal focuses on the provision of education to new andexperienced mothers on formulas that are available to their infantsand in addition, Good Shepherd Hospital will provide take-homeproducts of the sample packet to kick-start the usage of theseformulas. The research gives a detailed list of various types andforms of formulas that the mothers may choose from. Indeed, theresearch gives the mothers an insight on how and why to choose aparticular formula, which is affordable, healthy, and appropriate fortheir infants. Different types of ingredients available in eachformula are also tackled extensively to guide mothers to the rightformula with the targeted ingredients for their babies. Therefore, byfocusing on these areas, the research takes away the parents` doubtsand fears of switching to formulas as an alternative to breast milk.
Theresearch will test the mother’s knowledge of the formulas availableas alternative to breast milk and eliminate the confusion that occurswhen new and experienced mothers try to get an alternative formulafor feeding their babies. It will highlight the factors that maynecessitate mothers to switch to formulas instead of breast milk. Thestudy is also supposed to give a variety of formulas that areavailable in the market and also focus in weighing various formulasto find out the preferable formula in terms of cost and availability.
Backgroundof the study
Inthe recent world, mothers have been looking for alternative methodsto breastfeeding, or a method which can complement the breast feedingdue to their busy schedules and work commitment. In fact, there is aneed to educate the experienced and new mothers on the differenttypes and samples of formulas available for their use. Consequently,mothers who wish to substitute or replace breastfeeding with formulafeeding are not equipped with the right information on how to choosethe right formula. Essentially, mothers require the right informationabout the use of formulas and risks involved when used at very earlystages of their babies.
Significanceof the study
Theimportance of carrying out this research according to Good ShepherdHospital is to enlighten new and experienced mothers on the formulasapart from breast feeding and close the information gap. It also aimsat giving mothers the best alternative to breast milk for theirbabies. Based on the findings, the previous researches found out thatit is not always possible to breastfeed due to various factors suchas lactation failure or death of the mother (Wickes, 1953a, Fides,1986). Lactation failure has been mentioned in the Soderberg (1970).Thus, the research aims at providing solutions to mothers who mayfind themselves in such situations. It, therefore, provides analternative for mothers who are not in a position to breastfeed andalso gives other experienced and new mothers who are stillbreastfeeding their babies a good supplement to breast milk. Thoughthe research heavily focuses its attention to enlightening themothers on formula feeding as an alternative to breastfeeding, GoodShepherd Hospital insists that breastfeeding is always the best wayof feeding the infants. In addition, the research also educates themothers on the possible side effects of different types of formulathat have been recorded so far.
Purposeof the research
Theresearch aims at eliminating any doubts in new mothers while choosingthe formula for their baby. The research proposal will come up withdetailed data on the best formula ideal for babies at different ages.It focuses on the varieties of formulas that mothers may choose fromdepending on one’s preferences, affordability and the benefitsattached to it. It will provide an alternative feeding method forboth experienced and new mothers to their infants. Mothers who arenot able to breastfeed due to lactation failure will be educated onhow to choose the best formula as an alternative to breast milk.
Severalquestions act as a guide in carrying out this research for GoodShepherd Hospital. These questions include:
What is infant formula?
What are the different types and brands of formula?
What are the rules/guidelines about safe preparation?
How effective are these formulas in comparison to the breast milk?
What are the health issues associated with the formulas to the babies?
Thereis a significant relationship between the usage of milk formula andthe knowledge about formula milk. The outcome of the research willindicate that the mother’s knowledge on alternative formula milk isdirectly proportional to the formula milk usage.
Infant-Famon (1967) defines an infant as a baby in the early stages of lifethat is not more than 12 months of age.
Breastfeedingis the process of feeding a baby directly using breast milk.
Newmothers – mother who are in their early stages of motherhood andlacks experience in nursing of babies. Experienced Mothers are thosemothers who are in the advanced stage of motherhood and acquireexperience concerning nursing and bringing up babies.
Infantformula- According to Bayley (1993), a formula is a supplement or asubstitute for breast milk to the babies.
Mostinfant formulas are made of processed cow milk, suitable as analternative to breast milk in providing nutrition for babies duringtheir first six months of life.
Infantformula is available in two forms:
• Ready-to-feedliquid formula which is sold in cartons or bottles and is usuallysterile.
• Powderedinfant Formula which is usually sterile.
Wetnursing-the term refers to a situation where a woman breastfeedsanother mother’s child (Dennis, 2002). A mother feeding anothermother`s child was common before the introduction of bottles andformula feeding. This practice has slowly gone into extinction due tothe availability of other better feeding methods.
DataanalysisThedata acquired from the research will be analyzed and used to fill theinformation gap and provide an appropriate solution for the issuesthat arise from the researching process. The responses received fromthe questionnaire should answer all the questions that prompted theresearch.Researchpictorial
Similac contains OptiGRO
This is a blend of DHA,
Lutein and Vitamin E which
are important ingredients found
in breast milk.
Earth`s Best Contains DHA and ARA
Naturally found in breast milk.
Type ofingredients used vary based on the type of formula. Contains important ingredients found in breast milk.
Has DHA and ARA other ingredients vary per formula type.
Nestle Good Start contains Oligosaccharide (galactooligosaccharide) which contains omega 3 and 6
Figure1 formula packages (Feinet al., 2008)
NOTE.The most accurate and reliable information is always that on thelabel on the actual product which is periodically updated based onthe formula revisions.
Theabove formula brands are approved and listed as the top five brandsby the American Food and Drugs Administration. They are sold ingrocery stores and are framed in liquid form ready to serve andpowder form which are prepared and administered using a baby bottle.
Motherswho will be educated on formula feeding will receive a sample fromone of the above brands to kick-start with the feeding of theirinfants.
Thereare the challenges that will be encountered while carrying out theresearch. Firstly, some of the mothers may choose not to respond tothe questionnaires, discussions or even fail to participate in theexercise completely it may not prove possible to reach out to someof the mothers from Good Shepherd Hospital. Secondly, the process ofcarrying out the research may require cash that finances that may notbe readily available. Thirdly, for the research to be meaningful itrequires follow-ups on the mothers using formulas and the progress oftheir babies thus it may be time and resource consuming in the longrun. Fourthly, the available formulas may not universally work forall infants considering the inevitable fact that some infants mayhave conditions that require special formulas. According to Labineret al. (2008), the special formulas are suitable for infants withheart diseases, malabsorption syndrome, and digestive problems. Inaddition, the Society holds a negative view of formula feeding andbelieves that some developmental health conditions are linked toformula-feeding. Gillman et al. (2001) claim that babies breastfedfor a lengthy period are at a lower risk of obesity in theiradolescent years as compared to their formula fed counterparts.Hediger et al., (2001) avers that “breastfeeding may preventdevelopment of childhood obesity since breast milk is not caloriedense like formula and does not increase insulin levels for digestionlike formulas does” (2457).
Manyauthors have done numerous works on infants and their development.Labiner (2008) has tried to address the issues that come up withbreastfeeding and lactation, but his work does not address the needof educating people on the choice of the right formula for theinfants. Dennis (2005) widely solves the question on when is theright time and duration for using formulas on infants, but his workdoes not give us the perfect alternatives for babies with conditions.Other practitioners and researchers have widely dealt with the topicof substituting formulas with breast milk but still do not give adetailed report on the different brands and types of formulas thatare available for the mothers. Only a small number of identifiedstudies address this issue holistically. Therefore, it is an obviousthat there is an information gap since the formula feeding isunder-researched. The biggest challenge is information deficit, basedon information provided by health professionals.Cairney and Barbour (2007)make a strong claim that, “mothers are often denied information onan appropriate formula to use, how to prepare the formula correctlyand how to sterilize and store bottles of formula or expressed breastmilk” (32). As a consequence of the lack of published evidenceabout formula feeding, health professionals may feel uncomfortable,or they may lack knowledge in providing assistance to the formulafeeding mothers who may be in need of it. Cairney and Barbour (2007)concur that it is important to give attention to the information thatwill support women’s breastfeeding and formula feeding. Accordingto Cairney (2007) where mothers have been asked about informationprovided to them, it appears that the majority have been providedwith information on breastfeeding. A study considering the provisionof information to Scottish mothers found that less than 50 percent ofwomen reported being provided with information on sterilizingequipments, making feeds and providing the right quantities, beforethe birth of their baby (Jan, 2005). This research therefore focuseson educating mothers on the different types and brands with variedresults according to the data collected. Famon (1967) states that“though breastfeeding has remained the medically preferred methodof infant feeding, scientist have tried to come up with a syntheticformula equal to human milk” (915). Consequently, Infant formulaact 1980 has authorized FDA to assure the quality of infant formulas.Some of the brands have come up with formulas that are close to thenutrients found in breast milk. For instance, brands such as Similac,Nestle (Gerber), and Enfamil have come up with formulas that are veryclose to breast milk since they contain 90 percent of the nutrientsthat are found in mother`s breast milk. In addition, mothers will beinformed about what advertisements and commercials do not tell themabout formulas. For instance, the nutrients in synthetic formulasalmost resemble the nutrients in breast milk however, the amount ofnutrients in formula cannot be compared to that in breast milk. Othervital information that mothers might not be aware is that formuladoes not respond to the nutritional need of a growing infant.Notwithstanding, the formula does not change its composition to suitthe growing baby and this leads to the difficult digestive process(Labiner et al., 2008). Significantly, it should be noted that justas all other research and books written concerning this topic, thisproposal highly encourages and recommends breastfeeding since it isthe perfect source of nutrition and antibodies that children requirefor healthy growth. Ordinarily, the antibodies are naturally producedby women`s bodies and they play a fundamental role in fortifying theimmune of the baby.
Differentformulas are used at different stages of the baby’s life or fordifferent reason for example, those for giving baby energy, forbabies who were born prematurely or those meant for babies who aresick. As indicated by this research proposal, mothers who deliver atGood Shepherd Hospital are now better placed on the usage of formulamilk and can replace breastfeeding or supplement it according totheir needs.
Therefore,experienced and new mothers at Good Shepherd Hospital will be able todistinguish the different use of formulas and the appropriate formulato use in the successful stages of an infant`s life. Consequently,while carrying out the research, keen attention will be paid towardsthe negative effects of particular formulas. They will enlighten themothers on how to observe the signs and the action they should take.One very common effect of the formulas to many babies is thedevelopment of allergy reactions toward the formulas. In such a case,the mother should discontinue the use of the formula and seek adoctor`s advice.
Theinformation from the research will enable the health professionals atGood Shepherd Hospital to advise new and experienced mothers on thebest formula to adopt as a replacement or supplement to breast milk.Usually, the health professionals tend to ignore this topic whileadvising mothers since they lack pertinent information concerninginfant formula. The research will sample some of the available infantformulas on the market and come up with the most appropriate formulasfor the infants. Therefore, the formula will be used as the take-homesample to kick-start with the feeding of their baby after alsoreceiving the necessary education on how to prepare and preserve theformula. Good Shepherd Hospital will follow up on the progress of allthe infants whose mothers receive the education on the formulas.
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