Asthe first written constitution of the United States of America, theArticles of Confederation were scripted during wartime earnestness.The headway of the new constitution was sluggish before itsratification in 1781 due to the people`s fear of principal authorityand widespread land claims by the states. But it is also due tothese articles that the States remained sovereign and independent,letting only the Congress to serve as the last possibility onpetition of disputes. On top of being the last resort, the congresshad the authority to seal treaties and unions, maintain armed forcesand coin money. Nonetheless, the central government was deficient inthe ability to toll taxes and control trade. The issues mentioned ledto the modeling of new centralized laws during the ConstitutionalConvention in 1787.
TheArticles of Confederation were scripted in times of rule by fear fromstrong National governments. This was when the new federation neededrestructuring in order to hold the states together. This move wasaimed at fending off forthcoming attacks and probably makes theeconomy stronger. The Articles of Confederation appeared to be thebest solution to unite the States at the time.
Despitebeing the first governmental edifice in the thirteen States andunifying them, the Articles of Confederation lasted only eight yearsand in effect, failed. The main reason for the articles` failure isthat, their main goal was to establish a union of states wherebyevery state retained its independence and the United States was onlyaccountable for the mutual defense, safekeeping of autonomies, andthe overall welfare. In general, the articles were inscribed to havethe federal government as puny as possible.
Themain reason for the downfall of the Articles of Confederation was itsgeneral weakness. Under the governing of the Articles, the nationalgovernment was literally weak to impose their laws and consequentlyhad no power. The funds borrowed by the Continental Congress wereutilized in the Revolutionary War therefore, no funds to repay theirhuge sums of debt. The only resolution left to the states was toraise taxes that would be used to repay the latter debt.
Dueto its weak nature, the Articles of Confederations had numerouslimitations that called for the revision of the constitution.Firstly, each state had one vote in congress, despite the size of thelegislature. Then congress did not have the authority to tax thepeople. Also, the Congress had no authority to control overseas andinterstate trade. Other limitations faced were there were no anypolicymaking divisions to execute any acts passed by parliament,there were no federal court systems, the modifications to theArticles of Confederation obligated an undisputed vote and lastly,the laws needed a 9/13 preponderance to pass the legislature.
Themain purpose of the Constitutional Convention was to create theperfect union with the people of America by giving them theConstitution in 1787. The union was to signify independence amongthem and connected them with one another. From the Constitution`spreamble, the ideology behind the Constitution is established. Theprinciples of the Constitution were to declare the people`sindependence, connect them, and identify a sovereign nation-state.The Constitution was to establish a perfect amalgamation than theprevious one that existed in the Articles of Confederation.
Duringthe institution of the Articles of Confederation, the people of thestates leaned to leaders who were at the war. Daniel Shay was amongthe farmers who picked up their Arms and marched to the courthouse tostop them from foreclosing on their homes. This move apparentlyworked.
TheBill of Rights entails the first ten amendments to the U.S.constitution. The Bill of Rights was to soften the qualms ofAnti-federalists who were against the ratification of theconstitution. The Bill of Rights restricted the federal government`sauthority in judicial and other accounts, and reserved some supremacyto the state and the community. Although the Bill of Rights wasoriginally meant for the national government, most of itsrequirements have subsequently been protracted to the states, by theway, of the 14th amendment. This is done by the process ofincorporation.
TheBill of Rights had minimal jurisdictional impact for the leading 150years of its actuality. This was because the court did not make anydecisions to protect free speech rights of the people. In thetwentieth Century nonetheless, numerous provisions from the Bill wereuseful through the fourteenth Amendments due to incorporation.
Theconflict between Federalists and anti-federalists began in the 1790swith Alexander Hamilton propagating for the federalists` urbanmercantile and Thomas Jefferson standing for the Antifederalists`southern interests. A debate between the two was a matter of thepower of the federal government against that of the States. Thatmeant the federalists favored the central government and theAntifederalists promoted for State` Rights.
AlexanderHamilton, who was the secretary in the 1790s, suggested that thefinancial infrastructure of the United Sates must be based on theindustrial economy. Commonly known as the Hamiltonian vision.Hamilton fought for the creation of a capitalistic nation. Hamiltonwas a National-Federalist, a political party that enabled him toscript a report of manufacturers that stated as long as Americaremained an agricultural country it would forever be reliant onEuropean supremacies. The report on manufacturers encouragedsystematic industrial production to create more wealth.
ThomasJefferson proposed an economic tactic that was in direct oppositionof to the Hamiltonian vision. He proposed that the United Statesshould focus its economy on Agriculture for the states had alwaysbeen an agricultural society. The Jeffersonian vision promotesfarming it also aids in the protection of the American agrarianidentity and regionalized ruling that could not be sullied as theFrench government of the French Revolution.
Inconclusion, both theories proposed by Hamilton and Jefferson play amajor role in this century`s politics. Although Hamilton thoughtJefferson`s vision was obsolete, the agricultural economy has playedan important role in building the American industrial infrastructure.The funding for the industrial development was found from the richagricultural financing the United States had to offer. The capabilityof agricultural finance enabled the actualization of policies byHamilton to develop protective tariffs for infant industries as itwas something numerous economists of today would grimace at.
Jensen,Merrill, TheArticles of Confederation: An Interpretation of theSocial-Constitutional History of the American Revolution. (1959)
Wood,Gordon. TheCreation of the American Republic. (1969)