The19thcentury was remarkably an era of great unprecedented changes in thehistory of United States. This period witnessed great shift fromagrarian society, period of reconstruction, the gilded age and theprogressive era. Between 1865, to 1900 great economic and soaringprosperity in the South and North of US saw it rise as world’sdominant industrial, economic and agricultural power. Ostensibly,this great industrialization and economic boom instigated enormousinfiltration of immigrants to the United States as well as rise inrural urban migration which led to great changes in the cultural,social, political and economic aspects of the American Society(Garraty,1998 pg 20).
Thereconstruction stage occurred after the civil war bringing to an endslavery and establishment of American citizenship. The progressiveEra brought great changes in social, political and economic reformswhich rolled over to expansion of education, curtailment of corporateexcesses, and high status of women and modernization of governmentactivities. In addition, this period saw great surge in unprecedentedwave of European immigrants who provided labor in agriculture andindustries. By the late 19thcentury, America had become the leading global industrial power whoseprowess in development of new technologies, expansions of railroads,exploitation of abundant natural resources led to the secondindustrial revolution (Divine,et al, 2011.pg 10).
Secondindustrial revolution ushered in the gilded age which was enjoyed bythe upper percentile of American society. This stage was specificallyfuelled by great wealth transfer that saw dramatic changes in thesociety thereby creating ‘super rich captains of industry’, forthe first time in the American history the ‘Robber Barons’. AsMark Twain put it, ‘it was a period of glittering surface andcorrupt underneath, marked by corruption, conspicuous consumption andunfettered capitalism’. Nonetheless, this formative period markedthe establishment of modern industrial American economy. Despite theintense partisanship and turbulent era, great reforms took place inthe civil service, social, economic and political frontiers(Garraty, 1998 pg 23).
Theperiod progressing from the late 19thcentury was the making of modern America where greattelecommunication technologies radio, newspaper, growth ofcommercialized entertainment, great development in transportation andinventions of automobiles and trains ushered in the new order ofindustrial society in America. The 20thcentury was marked by unprecedented wave of new immigrants’infiltration in the United States in search of better life. Most ofthese immigrants were from other European countries unlike theearlier immigrants who came from Britain, Germany, Canada andIreland. The new immigrants who were mostly Catholics met greatanti-immigrants reactions. The immigrants settled mostly in towns andcities which led to great developments and expansion of cities(Divine,et al, 2011.pg 15).
After,the World War I & II a period known as the ‘Golden Twenties’,America emerged as the strongest economy where nationaltransportation and communication networks were created, businessbecame corporations and the new managerial skills revolutionizedbusiness operations. Consequently, business organizations as well asmechanization of business activities expanded with major sectors ofAmerican economy banking, oil refining, manufacturing, rail roadsand steel production growing exponentially (Garraty,1998 pg 25).
Theroaring twenties which is also known as the ‘Jazz Age or the‘flaming youth’ was a period marked by overwhelming technologicaladvancement modern computers, internet, televisions and automobileassembly. The baby boomers period also changed American society by reestablishment of family life and marriage security. Space programswere launched and American technology continued to exponentially growin unimaginable dimensions. Even in the 21stcentury, American society continues to change and grow recording newhistory(Divine,et al, 2011.pg 50).
Garraty,John A.  ‘TheAmerican Nation: A History of the United States since 1865’. 9th ed. Vol. 2.  New York:  Addison Wesley Longman, 1998, 2vols.Print.
Divine,Robert A. et al. AmericaPast and Present(8th ed. 2011), university textbook. Print